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authorScott Rifenbark <scott.m.rifenbark@intel.com>2014-05-28 15:23:04 +0300
committerRichard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>2014-11-20 17:24:52 +0000
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parent30b8d9378b8260e452552b806610dc9b6fe0b69f (diff)
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dev-manual: Updated the "Making Images More Secure" section.yocto-1.6.2daisy-11.0.2
Fixes [YOCTO #5482] I did some significant re-writing and re-organization of this section. It now includes a bit about securing an image in general, provides general considerations, considerations specific to the OpenEmbedded build system, pointers to some tools in meta-security layer, and some other items. I added some key references to the section on considerations specific to the OpenEmbedded build system. In particular, I provided some cross-linking back to the extrausers.bbclass section to reference an example of adding a user account. I also split out the topics of adding an extra user and setting a password on the image in the bulleted list. Updated the setting root and extra user's passwords. Also, permanently removed the reference to the wiki that showed the less optimal way of setting a root password. Added a cross-reference to the meta-selinux layer in the section that describes how to make images more secure. (From yocto-docs rev: 812bf8e2c91c4dd14a2245509ea7008a24e90835) Signed-off-by: Scott Rifenbark <scott.m.rifenbark@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Richard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>
-rw-r--r--documentation/dev-manual/dev-manual-common-tasks.xml235
1 files changed, 215 insertions, 20 deletions
diff --git a/documentation/dev-manual/dev-manual-common-tasks.xml b/documentation/dev-manual/dev-manual-common-tasks.xml
index bead56c..27e1b52 100644
--- a/documentation/dev-manual/dev-manual-common-tasks.xml
+++ b/documentation/dev-manual/dev-manual-common-tasks.xml
@@ -3577,32 +3577,227 @@
<title>Making Images More Secure</title>
<para>
- The Yocto Project has security flags that you can enable that
- help make your build output more secure.
- The security flags are in the
- <filename>meta/conf/distro/include/security_flags.inc</filename>
- file in your
- <link linkend='source-directory'>Source Directory</link>
- (e.g. <filename>poky</filename>).
+ Security is of increasing concern for embedded devices.
+ Consider the issues and problems discussed in just this
+ sampling of work found across the Internet:
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>
+ "<ulink url='https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/01/security_risks_9.html'>Security Risks of Embedded Systems</ulink>"</emphasis>
+ by Bruce Schneier
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>
+ "<ulink url='http://internetcensus2012.bitbucket.org/paper.html'>Internet Census 2012</ulink>"</emphasis>
+ by Carna Botnet</para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>
+ "<ulink url='http://elinux.org/images/6/6f/Security-issues.pdf'>Security Issues for Embedded Devices</ulink>"</emphasis>
+ by Jake Edge
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>
+ "<ulink url='https://www.nccgroup.com/media/18475/exploiting_security_gateways_via_their_web_interfaces.pdf'>They ought to know better: Exploiting Security
+Gateways via their Web Interfaces</ulink>"</emphasis>
+ by Ben Williams
+ </para></listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
</para>
<para>
- These GCC/LD flags enable more secure code generation.
- By including the <filename>security_flags.inc</filename>
- file, you enable flags to the compiler and linker that cause
- them to generate more secure code.
+ When securing your image is of concern, there are steps, tools,
+ and variables that you can consider to help you reach the
+ security goals you need for your particular device.
+ Not all situations are identical when it comes to making an
+ image secure.
+ Consequently, this section provides some guidance and suggestions
+ for consideration when you want to make your image more secure.
<note>
- These flags are enabled by default in the
- <filename>poky-lsb</filename> distribution.
+ Because the security requirements and risks are
+ different for every type of device, this section cannot
+ provide a complete reference on securing your custom OS.
+ It is strongly recommended that you also consult other sources
+ of information on embedded Linux system hardening and on
+ security.
</note>
- Use the following line in your
- <filename>local.conf</filename> file
- to enable the security compiler and
- linker flags to your build:
- <literallayout class='monospaced'>
- require conf/distro/include/security_flags.inc
- </literallayout>
</para>
+
+ <section id='general-considerations'>
+ <title>General Considerations</title>
+
+ <para>
+ General considerations exist that help you create more
+ secure images.
+ You should consider the following suggestions to help
+ make your device more secure:
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Scan additional code you are adding to the system
+ (e.g. application code) by using static analysis
+ tools.
+ Look for buffer overflows and other potential
+ security problems.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Pay particular attention to to the security for
+ any web-based administration interface.
+ </para>
+ <para>Web interfaces typically need to perform
+ administrative functions and tend to need to run with
+ elevated privileges.
+ Thus, the consequences resulting from the interface's
+ security becoming compromised can be serious.
+ Look for common web vulnerabilities such as
+ cross-site-scripting (XSS), unvalidated inputs,
+ and so forth.</para>
+ <para>As with system passwords, the default credentials
+ for accessing a web-based interface should not be the
+ same across all devices.
+ This is particularly true if the interface is enabled
+ by default as it can be assumed that many end-users
+ will not change the credentials.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Ensure you can update the software on the device to
+ mitigate vulnerabilities discovered in the future.
+ This consideration especially applies when your
+ device is network-enabled.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Ensure you remove or disable debugging functionality
+ before producing the final image.
+ For information on how to do this, see the
+ "<link linkend='considerations-specific-to-the-openembedded-build-system'>Considerations Specific to the OpenEmbedded Build System</link>"
+ section.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Ensure you have no network services listening that
+ are not needed.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Remove any software from the image that is not needed.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Enable hardware support for secure boot functionality
+ when your device supports this functionality.
+ </para></listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id='security-flags'>
+ <title>Security Flags</title>
+
+ <para>
+ The Yocto Project has security flags that you can enable that
+ help make your build output more secure.
+ The security flags are in the
+ <filename>meta/conf/distro/include/security_flags.inc</filename>
+ file in your
+ <link linkend='source-directory'>Source Directory</link>
+ (e.g. <filename>poky</filename>).
+ <note>
+ Depending on the recipe, certain security flags are enabled
+ and disabled by default.
+ </note>
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+<!--
+ The GCC/LD flags in <filename>security_flags.inc</filename>
+ enable more secure code generation.
+ By including the <filename>security_flags.inc</filename>
+ file, you enable flags to the compiler and linker that cause
+ them to generate more secure code.
+ <note>
+ The GCC/LD flags are enabled by default in the
+ <filename>poky-lsb</filename> distribution.
+ </note>
+-->
+ Use the following line in your
+ <filename>local.conf</filename> file or in your custom
+ distribution configuration file to enable the security
+ compiler and linker flags to your build:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ require conf/distro/include/security_flags.inc
+ </literallayout>
+ </para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id='considerations-specific-to-the-openembedded-build-system'>
+ <title>Considerations Specific to the OpenEmbedded Build System</title>
+
+ <para>
+ You can take some steps that are specific to the
+ OpenEmbedded build system to make your images more secure:
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Ensure "debug-tweaks" is not listed with
+ <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-IMAGE_FEATURES'><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></ulink>.
+ The default is to enable "debug-tweaks" by adding it
+ to
+ <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-EXTRA_IMAGE_FEATURES'><filename>EXTRA_IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></ulink>
+ in <filename>local.conf</filename>.
+ However, you should comment out the variable or be
+ sure that it does not have "debug-tweaks" before
+ producing your final image.
+ Among other things, leaving this in place sets the
+ root password as blank, which makes logging in for
+ debugging or inspection easy during
+ development but also means anyone can easily log in
+ during production.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ It is possible to set a root password for the image
+ and also to set passwords for any extra users you might
+ add (e.g. administrative or service type users).
+ When you set up passwords for multiple images or
+ users, you should not duplicate passwords.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ To set up passwords, use the
+ <filename>extrausers</filename> class, which is the
+ preferred method.
+ For an example on how to set up both root and user
+ passwords, see the
+ "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#ref-classes-extrausers'><filename>extrausers.bbclass</filename></ulink>"
+ section.
+ <note>
+ When adding extra user accounts or setting a
+ root password, be cautious about setting the
+ same password on every device.
+ If you do this, and the password you have set
+ is exposed, then every device is now potentially
+ compromised.
+ If you need this access but want to ensure
+ security, consider setting a different,
+ random password for each device.
+ Typically, you do this as a separate step after
+ you deploy the image onto the device.
+ </note>
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Consider enabling a Mandatory Access Control (MAC)
+ framework (such as SMACK or SELinux) and tuning it
+ appropriately for your device's usage.
+ You can find more information in the
+ <ulink url='http://git.yoctoproject.org/cgit/cgit.cgi/meta-selinux/'><filename>meta-selinux</filename></ulink>
+ layer.
+ </para></listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ </para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id='tools-for-hardening-your-image'>
+ <title>Tools for Hardening Your Image</title>
+
+ <para>
+ The Yocto Project provides tools for making your image
+ more secure.
+ You can find these tools in the
+ <filename>meta-security</filename> layer of the
+ <ulink url='&YOCTO_GIT_URL;/cgit/cgit.cgi'>Yocto Project Source Repositories</ulink>.
+ </para>
+ </section>
</section>
<section id='creating-your-own-distribution'>