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Armv8-R AArch64 AEM FVP Support in meta-arm-bsp
===============================================

Overview
--------

Fixed Virtual Platforms (FVP) are complete simulations of an Arm system,
including processor, memory and peripherals. These are set out in a
"programmer's view", which gives you a comprehensive model on which to build
and test your software.

The Armv8-R AEM FVP is a free of charge Armv8-R Fixed Virtual Platform. It
supports the latest Armv8-R feature set.

This BSP implements a reference stack for the AArch64 support in the R-class
first announced with the Cortex-R82 processor:
https://developer.arm.com/ip-products/processors/cortex-r/cortex-r82

Fast Models Fixed Virtual Platforms (FVP) Reference Guide:
https://developer.arm.com/docs/100966/latest


BSP Support
-----------

The fvp-baser-aemv8r64 Yocto MACHINE supports the following BSP components,
where either a standard or Real-Time Linux kernel (PREEMPT\_RT) can be built
and run:

 - FVP_Base_AEMv8R: v11.19.14
 - boot-wrapper-aarch64: provides PSCI support
 - U-Boot: v2022.04 - provides UEFI services
 - Linux kernel: linux-yocto-5.15
 - Linux kernel with PREEMPT\_RT support: linux-yocto-rt-5.15

Note that the Real-Time Linux kernel (PREEMPT\_RT) does not use the real-time
architectural extensions of the Armv8-R feature set.

High-Level Architecture
-----------------------

The diagram below shows the current boot flow:

    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |                         Linux kernel                          |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
               /|\                                     /|\
                |                                       |
                | UEFI services                         |
                |                         PSCI services |
               \|/                                      |
        +----------------+                              |     S-EL1
    ----|     U-Boot     |------------------------------|-----------
        +----------------+                              |     S-EL2
               /|\                                      |
                |                                       |
                |                                       |
                |                                       |
    +--------------------------------------------------\|/----------+
    |                        +----------------+ +----------------+  |
    |  boot-wrapper-aarch64  |  Device tree   | |  PSCI handler  |  |
    |                        +----------------+ +----------------+  |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+


The firmware binary (generated as `linux-system.axf`) includes
boot-wrapper-aarch64, the flattened device tree and U-Boot. U-Boot is configured
to automatically detect a virtio block device and boot the UEFI payload at the
path `/efi/boot/bootaa64.efi`. Using the standard build, the first partition
contains a Grub image at this path, which boots the Linux kernel at `/Image` on
the same partition. The second partition of the image contains the Linux root
file system.

There is no EL3 or non-secure world in the Armv8-R AArch64 architecture, so the
reset vector starts boot-wrapper-aarch64 at S-EL2. Boot-wrapper-aarch64 is
compiled with the `--enable-keep-el` flag, which causes it to boot U-Boot at
S-EL2 too. U-Boot is compiled with the `CONFIG_ARMV8_SWITCH_TO_EL1` flag, which
causes it to switch to S-EL1 before booting Linux.

The bundled device tree is passed to U-Boot via register x0. U-Boot passes the
same device tree to Linux via the UEFI system table.

Power state management is provided by PSCI services in boot-wrapper-aarch64.
Linux accesses the PSCI handler via HVC calls to S-EL2. U-Boot has been patched
to prevent it from overriding the exception vector at S-EL2. The PSCI handler
memory region is added to a `/memreserve/` node in the device tree.

Please note that the final firmware architecture for the fvp-baser-aemv8r64 is
not yet stabilized. The patches in this layer are provided for development and
evaluation purposes only, and should not be used in production firmware.

Quick start: Howto Build and Run
--------------------------------

### Host environment setup
The following instructions have been tested on hosts running Ubuntu 18.04 and
Ubuntu 20.04.
Install the required packages for the build host:
https://docs.yoctoproject.org/singleindex.html#required-packages-for-the-build-host

Kas is a setup tool for bitbake based projects. The minimal supported version
is 3.0, install it like so:

    pip3 install --user --upgrade kas

For more details on kas, see https://kas.readthedocs.io/.

To build the images for the fvp-baser-aemv8r64 machine, you also need to accept
the EULA at
https://developer.arm.com/downloads/-/arm-ecosystem-fvps/eula
by setting the following environment variable:

    FVP_BASE_R_ARM_EULA_ACCEPT="True"

**Note:** The host machine should have at least 50 GBytes of free disk space
for the next steps to work correctly.

### Fetch sources
To fetch and build the ongoing development of the software stack follow the
instructions on this document.

To fetch and build the version 1 (single core) find instructions at https://community.arm.com/developer/tools-software/oss-platforms/w/docs/633/release-1-single-core

To fetch and build the version 2 (linux smp) find instructions at https://community.arm.com/developer/tools-software/oss-platforms/w/docs/634/release-2---smp

Fetch the meta-arm repository into a build directory:

    mkdir -p ~/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-build
    cd ~/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-build
    git clone https://git.yoctoproject.org/git/meta-arm


### Build
Building with the standard Linux kernel:

    cd ~/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-build
    export FVP_BASE_R_ARM_EULA_ACCEPT="True"
    kas build meta-arm/kas/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-bsp.yml

Building with the Real-Time Linux kernel (PREEMPT\_RT):

    cd ~/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-build
    export FVP_BASE_R_ARM_EULA_ACCEPT="True"
    kas build meta-arm/kas/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-rt-bsp.yml

### Run
To run an image after the build is done with the standard Linux kernel:

    kas shell --keep-config-unchanged \
       meta-arm/kas/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-bsp.yml \
           --command "../layers/meta-arm/scripts/runfvp \
           --console "

To run an image after the build is done with the Real-Time Linux kernel
(PREEMPT\_RT):

    kas shell --keep-config-unchanged \
       meta-arm/kas/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-rt-bsp.yml \
           --command "../layers/meta-arm/scripts/runfvp \
           --console "

**Note:** The terminal console login is `root` without password.

To finish the fvp emulation, you need to close the telnet session:

 - Escape to telnet console with ``ctrl+]``.
 - Run ``quit`` to close the session.

### Networking
The FVP is configured by default to use "user-mode networking", which simulates
an IP router and DHCP server to avoid additional host dependencies and
networking configuration. Outbound connections work automatically, e.g. by
running:

    wget www.arm.com

Inbound connections require an explicit port mapping from the host. By default,
port 8022 on the host is mapped to port 22 on the FVP, so that the following
command will connect to an ssh server running on the FVP:

    ssh root@localhost -p 8022

Note that user-mode networking does not support ICMP, so `ping` will not work.
For more information about user-mode networking, please see
https://developer.arm.com/documentation/100964/1117/Introduction-to-Fast-Models/User-mode-networking?lang=en

### File sharing between host and fvp
It is possible to share a directory between the host machine and the fvp using
the virtio P9 device component included in the kernel. To do so, create a
directory to be mounted from the host machine:

    mkdir /path/to/host-mount-dir

Then, add the following parameter containing the path to the directory when
launching the model:

    --parameter 'bp.virtiop9device.root_path=/path/to/host-mount-dir'

e.g. for the standard Linux kernel:

    kas shell --keep-config-unchanged \
       meta-arm/kas/fvp-baser-aemv8r64-bsp.yml \
           --command "../layers/meta-arm/scripts/runfvp \
           --console -- --parameter \
           'bp.virtiop9device.root_path=/path/to/host-mount-dir'"

Once you are logged into the fvp, the host directory can be mounted in a
directory on the model using the following command:

    mount -t 9p -o trans=virtio,version=9p2000.L FM /path/to/fvp-mount-dir

Devices supported in the kernel
-------------------------------

- serial
- virtio 9p
- virtio disk
- virtio network
- virtio rng
- watchdog
- rtc

Known Issues and Limitations
----------------------------

- Only PSCI CPU\_ON and CPU\_OFF functions are supported
- Linux kernel does not support booting from secure EL2 on Armv8-R AArch64
- Linux KVM does not support Armv8-R AArch64
- Device DMA memory cache-coherence issue: the FVP `cache_state_modelled`
  parameter will affect the cache coherence behavior of peripherals’ DMA. When
  users set `cache_state_modelled=1`, they also have to set
  `cci400.force_on_from_start=1` to force the FVP to enable snooping on upstream
  ports.

Change Log
----------
- Enabled the ability for U-Boot to apply device tree overlays
- Fixed bug in U-Boot that caused changes to the `memory` node in the device
  tree to be ignored.
- Added boot-wrapper-aarch64 support for booting SMP payloads at S-EL2.
- Enabled testimage support by default.
- Added virtio\_rng to improve random number generation.
- Added U-Boot v2022.01 for UEFI support.
- Updated Linux kernel version from 5.14 to 5.15 for both standard and
  Real-Time (PREEMPT\_RT) builds.
- Updated boot-wrapper-aarch64 revision and added support for booting U-Boot.
- Included boot-wrapper-aarch64 PSCI services in `/memreserve/` region.
- Fixed the counter frequency initialization in boot-wrapper-aarch64.
- Configured the FVP to use the default RAM size of 4 Gb
- Fixed PL011 and SP805 register sizes in the device tree.
- Added virtio\_net User Networking mode by default and removed instructions
  about tap networking setup.
- Updated Linux kernel version from 5.10 to 5.14 for both standard and
  Real-Time (PREEMPT\_RT) builds.
- Enabled SMP support via boot-wrapper-aarch64 providing the PSCI CPU\_ON and
  CPU\_OFF functions.
- Introduced Armv8-R64 compiler flags.
- Added Linux PREEMPT\_RT support via linux-yocto-rt-5.10.
- Added support for file sharing with the host machine using Virtio P9.
- Added support for runfvp.
- Added performance event support (PMU) in the Linux device tree.
- Introduced the fvp-baser-aemv8r64 machine and its BSP composed of
  boot-wrapper-aarch64 and linux-yocto-5.10 supporting serial, virtio disk,
  virtio network, watchdog and rtc.