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authorScott Rifenbark <scott.m.rifenbark@intel.com>2014-04-15 14:06:21 -0700
committerRichard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>2014-04-21 23:05:15 +0100
commit78217d37d2ed27fc182bc704e6a018ad7211d732 (patch)
treecef45d4269313d068f4a2678b349378495ae54d1
parent69d4c634283980cc87e2963c000e63cc724fd842 (diff)
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bitbake: bitbake-user-manual-hello.xml: First draft of "Hello World" appendix
Fixes [YOCTO #1973] Added the complete "Hello World" appendix first draft beyond what Bill Traynor had supplied. (Bitbake rev: 3a618a0c8efd04d24a3569c32431ac2732fb4876) Signed-off-by: Scott Rifenbark <scott.m.rifenbark@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Richard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>
-rw-r--r--bitbake/doc/bitbake-user-manual/bitbake-user-manual-hello.xml649
1 files changed, 328 insertions, 321 deletions
diff --git a/bitbake/doc/bitbake-user-manual/bitbake-user-manual-hello.xml b/bitbake/doc/bitbake-user-manual/bitbake-user-manual-hello.xml
index 95a6804a19..2d67ff77da 100644
--- a/bitbake/doc/bitbake-user-manual/bitbake-user-manual-hello.xml
+++ b/bitbake/doc/bitbake-user-manual/bitbake-user-manual-hello.xml
@@ -121,16 +121,6 @@
<title>The Hello World Example</title>
<para>
- The following example leaps directly into how BitBake
- works.
- While every attempt is made to explain what is happening,
- not everything can be covered.
- You can find further information in the
- "<link linkend='bitbake-user-manual-metadata'>Syntax and Operators</link>"
- chapter.
- </para>
-
- <para>
The overall goal of this exercise is to build a
complete "Hello World" example utilizing task and layer
concepts.
@@ -141,8 +131,25 @@
</para>
<para>
- It should be noted that this chapter was inspired by
- and draws heavily from several sources:
+ To help you understand how to use BitBake to build targets,
+ the example starts with nothing but the <filename>bitbake</filename>
+ command, which causes BitBake to fail and report problems.
+ The example progresses by adding pieces to the build to
+ eventually conclude with a working, minimal "Hello World"
+ example.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ While every attempt is made to explain what is happening during
+ the example, the descriptions cannot cover everything.
+ You can find further information throughout this manual.
+ Also, you can actively participate in the
+ <ulink url='http://lists.openembedded.org/mailman/listinfo/bitbake-devel'></ulink>
+ discussion mailing list about the BitBake build tool.
+ </para>
+
+ <note>
+ This example was inspired by and drew heavily from these sources:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
<ulink url="http://www.mail-archive.com/yocto@yoctoproject.org/msg09379.html">Mailing List post - The BitBake equivalent of "Hello, World!"</ulink>
@@ -151,114 +158,177 @@
<ulink url="http://hambedded.org/blog/2012/11/24/from-bitbake-hello-world-to-an-image/">Hambedded Linux blog post - From Bitbake Hello World to an Image</ulink>
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- </para>
-
- <section id='a-reverse-walk-through'>
- <title>A Reverse Walk-Through</title>
+ </note>
- <para>
- A good way to understand anything is to walk through the steps
- that take you to where you want to be and observe first
- principles.
- BitBake allows us to do this through the
- <filename>-D</filename> or <filename>Debug</filename>
- command-line parameter.
- </para>
+ <para>
+ As stated earlier, the goal of this example
+ is to eventually compile "Hello World".
+ However, it is unknown what BitBake needs and what you have
+ to provide in order to achieve that goal.
+ Recall that BitBake utilizes three types of metadata files:
+ <link linkend='configuration-files'>Configuration Files</link>,
+ <link linkend='classes'>Classes</link>, and
+ <link linkend='recipes'>Recipes</link>.
+ But where do they go?
+ How does BitBake find them?
+ BitBake's error messaging helps you answer these types of questions
+ and helps you better understand exactly what is going on.
+ </para>
- <para>
- The goal is to eventually compile a "Hello World" example.
- However, it is unknown what is needed to achieve that goal.
- Recall that BitBake utilizes three types of metadata files:
- <link linkend='configuration-files'>Configuration Files</link>,
- <link linkend='classes'>Classes</link>, and
- <link linkend='recipes'>Recipes</link>.
- But where do they go?
- How does BitBake find them?
- BitBake's error messaging helps you answer these types of questions
- and helps you better understand exactly what is going on.
- </para>
+ <para>
+ Following is the complete "Hello World" example.
+ </para>
- <para>
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Create a Project Directory:</emphasis>
First, set up a directory for the "Hello World" project.
Here is how you can do so in your home directory:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
$ mkdir ~/hello
$ cd ~/hello
</literallayout>
- Within this new, empty directory, run BitBake with
- debugging output and see what happens:
+ This is the directory that BitBake will use to do all of
+ its work.
+ You can use this directory to keep all the metafiles needed
+ by BitBake.
+ Having a project directory is a good way to isolate your
+ project.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Run Bitbake:</emphasis>
+ At this point, you have nothing but a project directory.
+ Run the <filename>bitbake</filename> command and see what
+ it does:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
- $ bitbake -DDD
- The BBPATH variable is not set and bitbake did not find
- a conf/bblayers.conf file in the expected location.
- Maybe you accidentally invoked bitbake from the wrong
- directory?
+ $ bitbake
+ The BBPATH variable is not set and bitbake did not
+ find a conf/bblayers.conf file in the expected location.
+ Maybe you accidentally invoked bitbake from the wrong directory?
DEBUG: Removed the following variables from the environment:
GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID, XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP,
- GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL, DISPLAY, SSH_AGENT_PID, LANG,
- no_proxy, XDG_SESSION_PATH, XAUTHORITY, SESSION_MANAGER,
- SHLVL, MANDATORY_PATH, COMPIZ_CONFIG_PROFILE, WINDOWID,
- EDITOR, GPG_AGENT_INFO, SSH_AUTH_SOCK, GDMSESSION,
- DEFAULTS_PATH, XDG_SEAT_PATH, XDG_CONFIG_DIRS, LESSOPEN,
- DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS, _, XDG_SESSION_COOKIE,
- DESKTOP_SESSION, LESSCLOSE, GNOME_KEYRING_PID,
- UBUNTU_MENUPROXY, OLDPWD, XDG_DATA_DIRS, COLORTERM,
- LS_COLORS
+ GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL, DISPLAY, SSH_AGENT_PID, LANG, no_proxy,
+ XDG_SESSION_PATH, XAUTHORITY, SESSION_MANAGER, SHLVL,
+ MANDATORY_PATH, COMPIZ_CONFIG_PROFILE, WINDOWID, EDITOR,
+ GPG_AGENT_INFO, SSH_AUTH_SOCK, GDMSESSION, GNOME_KEYRING_PID,
+ XDG_SEAT_PATH, XDG_CONFIG_DIRS, LESSOPEN, DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS,
+ _, XDG_SESSION_COOKIE, DESKTOP_SESSION, LESSCLOSE, DEFAULTS_PATH,
+ UBUNTU_MENUPROXY, OLDPWD, XDG_DATA_DIRS, COLORTERM, LS_COLORS
</literallayout>
The majority of this output is specific to environment variables
that are not directly relevant to BitBake.
However, the very first message regarding the
<filename>BBPATH</filename> variable and the
<filename>conf/bblayers.conf</filename> file
- is relevant.
- </para>
-
- <para>
+ is relevant.</para>
+ <para>
+ When you run BitBake, it begins looking for metadata files.
+ The
+ <link linkend='var-BBPATH'><filename>BBPATH</filename></link>
+ variable is what tells BitBake where to look for those files.
+ <filename>BBPATH</filename> is not set and you need to set it.
+ Without <filename>BBPATH</filename>, Bitbake cannot
+ find any configuration files (<filename>.conf</filename>)
+ or recipe files (<filename>.bb</filename>) at all.
+ BitBake also cannot find the <filename>bitbake.conf</filename>
+ file.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Setting <filename>BBPATH</filename>:</emphasis>
+ For this example, you can set <filename>BBPATH</filename>
+ in the same manner that you set <filename>PATH</filename>
+ earlier in the appendix.
+ You should realize, though, that it is much more flexible to set the
+ <filename>BBPATH</filename> variable up in a configuration
+ file for each project.</para>
+ <para>From your shell, enter the following commands to set and
+ export the <filename>BBPATH</filename> variable:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
-1. Once you have PATH set up to actually run BB, and then you run it
- using:
-
- bitbake -DDD
-
- You get these complaints:
-
-The BBPATH variable is not set and bitbake did not find a conf/bblayers.conf file in the expected location.
-Maybe you accidentally invoked bitbake from the wrong directory?
-
-2. If you export BBPATH to point to your build directory and do nothing
- else, BB will look for the &lt;buildir&gt;/conf/bitbake.conf file. It will
- throw and error with a bunch of traceback stuff and say:
-
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~ [master #]
-$ mkdir junk
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~ [master #]
-$ BBPATH="/home/scott-lenovo/junk"
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~ [master #]
-$ export BBPATH
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~ [master #]
-$ bitbake -DDD
-ERROR: Traceback (most recent call last):
- File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/cookerdata.py", line 163, in wrapped
- return func(fn, *args)
- File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/cookerdata.py", line 173, in parse_config_file
- return bb.parse.handle(fn, data, include)
- File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/parse/__init__.py", line 99, in handle
- return h['handle'](fn, data, include)
- File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/parse/parse_py/ConfHandler.py", line 120, in handle
- abs_fn = resolve_file(fn, data)
- File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/parse/__init__.py", line 117, in resolve_file
- raise IOError("file %s not found in %s" % (fn, bbpath))
-IOError: file conf/bitbake.conf not found in /home/scott-lenovo/junk
-
-ERROR: Unable to parse conf/bitbake.conf: file conf/bitbake.conf not found in /home/scott-lenovo/junk
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~ [master #]
-
-3. Now I am going to create the conf/bitbake.conf file I need for the hello
- world example. Then run it again. Time it complains about not finding
- classes/base.bbclass.
-
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
-$ bitbake -DDD
+ $ BBPATH="&lt;projectdirectory&gt;"
+ $ export BBPATH
+ </literallayout>
+ Use your actual project directory in the command.
+ BitBake uses that directory to find the metadata it needs for
+ your project.
+ <note>
+ When specifying your project directory, do not use the
+ tilde ("~") character as BitBake does not expand that character
+ as the shell would.
+ </note>
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Run Bitbake:</emphasis>
+ Now that you have <filename>BBPATH</filename> defined, run
+ the <filename>bitbake</filename> command again:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ $ bitbake
+ ERROR: Traceback (most recent call last):
+ File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/cookerdata.py", line 163, in wrapped
+ return func(fn, *args)
+ File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/cookerdata.py", line 173, in parse_config_file
+ return bb.parse.handle(fn, data, include)
+ File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/parse/__init__.py", line 99, in handle
+ return h['handle'](fn, data, include)
+ File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/parse/parse_py/ConfHandler.py", line 120, in handle
+ abs_fn = resolve_file(fn, data)
+ File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/parse/__init__.py", line 117, in resolve_file
+ raise IOError("file %s not found in %s" % (fn, bbpath))
+ IOError: file conf/bitbake.conf not found in /home/scott-lenovo/hello
+
+ ERROR: Unable to parse conf/bitbake.conf: file conf/bitbake.conf not found in /home/scott-lenovo/hello
+ </literallayout>
+ This sample output shows that BitBake could not find the
+ <filename>conf/bitbake.conf</filename> file in the project
+ directory.
+ This file is the first thing BitBake must find in order
+ to build a target.
+ And, since the project directory for this example is
+ empty, you need to provide a <filename>conf/bitbake.conf</filename>
+ file.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Creating <filename>conf/bitbake.conf</filename>:</emphasis>
+ The <filename>conf/bitbake.conf</filename> includes a number of
+ configuration variables BitBake uses for metadata and recipe
+ files.
+ For this example, you need to create the file in your project directory
+ and define some key BitBake variables.
+ For more information on the <filename>bitbake.conf</filename>,
+ see
+ <ulink url='http://hambedded.org/blog/2012/11/24/from-bitbake-hello-world-to-an-image/#an-overview-of-bitbakeconf'></ulink>
+ </para>
+ <para>Use the following commands to create the <filename>conf</filename>
+ directory in the project directory:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ $ mkdir conf
+ </literallayout>
+ From within the <filename>conf</filename> directory, use
+ some editor to create the <filename>bitbake.conf</filename>
+ so that it contains the following:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ TMPDIR = "${<link linkend='var-TOPDIR'>TOPDIR</link>}/tmp"
+ <link linkend='var-CACHE'>CACHE</link> = "${TMPDIR}/cache"
+ <link linkend='var-STAMP'>STAMP</link> = "${TMPDIR}/stamps"
+ <link linkend='var-T'>T</link> = "${TMPDIR}/work"
+ <link linkend='var-B'>B</link> = "${TMPDIR}"
+ </literallayout>
+ The <filename>TMPDIR</filename> variable establishes a directory
+ that BitBake uses for build output and intermediate files (other
+ than the cached information used by the
+ <link linkend='setscene'>Setscene</link> process.
+ Here, the <filename>TMPDIR</filename> directory is set to
+ <filename>hello/tmp</filename>.
+ <note><title>Tip</title>
+ You can always safely delete the <filename>tmp</filename>
+ directory in order to rebuild a BitBake target.
+ The build process creates the directory for you
+ when you run BitBake.
+ </note></para>
+ <para>For information about each of the other variables defined in this
+ example, click on the links to take you to the definitions in
+ the glossary.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Run Bitbake:</emphasis>
+ After making sure that the <filename>conf/bitbake.conf</filename>
+ file exists, you can run the <filename>bitbake</filename>
+ command again:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+$ bitbake
ERROR: Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/home/scott-lenovo/bitbake/lib/bb/cookerdata.py", line 163, in wrapped
return func(fn, *args)
@@ -271,241 +341,178 @@ ERROR: Traceback (most recent call last):
ParseError: ParseError in configuration INHERITs: Could not inherit file classes/base.bbclass
ERROR: Unable to parse base: ParseError in configuration INHERITs: Could not inherit file classes/base.bbclass
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
-
-4. So now we add that classes/base.bbclass file and put in one line that says
- "addtask build", which is the minimum task you need. We run it again and
- things work but there is nothing to do. That stands to reason since I gave it
- no target.
-
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
-$ bitbake -DDD
-Nothing to do. Use 'bitbake world' to build everything, or run 'bitbake --help' for usage information.
-DEBUG: Removed the following variables from the environment: GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID, XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP, GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL, DISPLAY, SSH_AGENT_PID, LANG, no_proxy, XDG_SESSION_PATH, XAUTHORITY, SESSION_MANAGER, SHLVL, MANDATORY_PATH, COMPIZ_CONFIG_PROFILE, WINDOWID, EDITOR, GPG_AGENT_INFO, SSH_AUTH_SOCK, GDMSESSION, GNOME_KEYRING_PID, XDG_SEAT_PATH, XDG_CONFIG_DIRS, LESSOPEN, DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS, _, XDG_SESSION_COOKIE, DESKTOP_SESSION, LESSCLOSE, DEFAULTS_PATH, UBUNTU_MENUPROXY, OLDPWD, XDG_DATA_DIRS, COLORTERM, LS_COLORS
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/conf/bitbake.conf
-DEBUG: BB configuration INHERITs:0: inheriting /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass
-DEBUG: BB /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass: handle(data, include)
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass
-DEBUG: Clearing SRCREV cache due to cache policy of: clear
-DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/junk/tmp/cache/local_file_checksum_cache.dat'
-DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/junk/tmp/cache/bb_codeparser.dat'
-DEBUG: Features set [3] (was [3])
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
-
-5. Here is what happens when you do provide a target but the target doesn't
- exist yet.
-
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
-$ bitbake a
-ERROR: no recipe files to build, check your BBPATH and BBFILES?
-
-Summary: There was 1 ERROR message shown, returning a non-zero exit code.
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
-
-6. Create a layer that has your metadata in it. You need your recipe file
- and your layer.conf file. That is all good but you still need to
- tell BB where your layers are. You do that through a bblayers.conf file.
- We will use this one:
-
- BBLAYERS ?=" \
- /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA \
- "
-
- Now when you run it, you get this:
-
-$ bitbake -DDD a
-DEBUG: Removed the following variables from the environment: GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID, XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP, GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL, DISPLAY, SSH_AGENT_PID, LANG, no_proxy, XDG_SESSION_PATH, XAUTHORITY, SESSION_MANAGER, SHLVL, MANDATORY_PATH, COMPIZ_CONFIG_PROFILE, WINDOWID, EDITOR, GPG_AGENT_INFO, SSH_AUTH_SOCK, GDMSESSION, GNOME_KEYRING_PID, XDG_SEAT_PATH, XDG_CONFIG_DIRS, LESSOPEN, DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS, _, XDG_SESSION_COOKIE, DESKTOP_SESSION, LESSCLOSE, DEFAULTS_PATH, UBUNTU_MENUPROXY, OLDPWD, XDG_DATA_DIRS, COLORTERM, LS_COLORS
-DEBUG: Found bblayers.conf (/home/scott-lenovo/junk/conf/bblayers.conf)
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/conf/bblayers.conf
-DEBUG: Adding layer /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/conf/layer.conf
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/conf/bitbake.conf
-DEBUG: BB configuration INHERITs:0: inheriting /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass
-DEBUG: BB /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass: handle(data, include)
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass
-DEBUG: Clearing SRCREV cache due to cache policy of: clear
-DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/junk/tmp/cache/local_file_checksum_cache.dat'
-DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/junk/tmp/cache/bb_codeparser.dat'
-DEBUG: Features set [3] (was [3])
-DEBUG: Calculated priority of layer A as 1
-DEBUG: collecting .bb files
-DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/junk/tmp/cache'
-DEBUG: Cache: /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/a.bb is not cached
-DEBUG: BB /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/a.bb: handle(data) | ETA: --:--:--
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/a.bb
-Parsing recipes: 100% |##########################################################################################| Time: 00:00:00
-Parsing of 1 .bb files complete (0 cached, 1 parsed). 1 targets, 0 skipped, 0 masked, 0 errors.
-DEBUG: parsing complete
-DEBUG: providers for a are: ['a']
-DEBUG: sorted providers for a are: ['/home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/a.bb']
-DEBUG: adding /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/a.bb to satisfy a
-DEBUG: Added dependencies [] for /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/a.bb
-NOTE: Resolving any missing task queue dependencies
-DEBUG: Resolved 0 extra dependencies
-NOTE: Preparing runqueue
-NOTE: Marking Active Tasks
-NOTE: Pruned 0 inactive tasks, 1 left
-NOTE: Assign Weightings
-NOTE: Compute totals (have 1 endpoint(s))
-DEBUG: Starting bitbake-worker
-NOTE: Executing RunQueue Tasks
-DEBUG: Considering 0 (/home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/a.bb, do_build): set([])
-DEBUG: Skip list (pre setsceneverify) []
-DEBUG: Full skip list set([])
-DEBUG: Using runqueue scheduler 'speed'
-DEBUG: Stampfile /home/scott-lenovo/junk/tmp/stamps.do_build not available
-DEBUG: Found bblayers.conf (/home/scott-lenovo/junk/conf/bblayers.conf)
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/conf/bblayers.conf
-DEBUG: Adding layer /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/LayerA/conf/layer.conf
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/conf/bitbake.conf
-DEBUG: BB configuration INHERITs:0: inheriting /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass
-DEBUG: BB /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass: handle(data, include)
-DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/junk/classes/base.bbclass
-DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/junk/tmp/cache/bb_codeparser.dat'
-************************
-* *
-* Hello, World! *
-* *
-************************
-DEBUG: Teardown for bitbake-worker
-NOTE: Tasks Summary: Attempted 1 tasks of which 0 didn't need to be rerun and all succeeded.
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk/conf [master #]
-
-7. If you run it without the "-DDD" option, the output is cleaner.
-
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
-$ bitbake a
-Parsing recipes: 100% |##########################################################################################| Time: 00:00:00
-Parsing of 1 .bb files complete (0 cached, 1 parsed). 1 targets, 0 skipped, 0 masked, 0 errors.
-NOTE: Resolving any missing task queue dependencies
-NOTE: Preparing runqueue
-NOTE: Executing RunQueue Tasks
-************************
-* *
-* Hello, World! *
-* *
-************************
-NOTE: Tasks Summary: Attempted 1 tasks of which 0 didn't need to be rerun and all succeeded.
-scott-lenovo@scott-lenovo:~/junk [master #]
</literallayout>
- </para>
-
- <para>
- You need to set
- <link linkend='var-BBPATH'><filename>BBPATH</filename></link>.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- When you run BitBake, it begins looking for metadata files.
- The <filename>BBPATH</filename> variable is what tells
- BitBake where to look.
- You could set <filename>BBPATH</filename> in the same manner
- that you set <filename>PATH</filename> as shown earlier.
- However, it is much more flexible to set the
- <link linkend='var-BBPATH'><filename>BBPATH</filename></link>
- variable for each project.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- Without <filename>BBPATH</filename>, Bitbake cannot
- find any configuration files (<filename>.conf</filename>)
- or recipe files (<filename>.bb</filename>) at all.
- BitBake also cannot find the <filename>bitbake.conf</filename>
- file.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- It is standard practice to organize the project's directory tree
- to include both a <filename>conf/</filename> and
- <filename>classes/</filename> directory.
- You need to add those directories to your project:
+ In the sample output, BitBake could not find the
+ <filename>classes/base.bbclass</filename> file.
+ You need to create that file next.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Creating <filename>classes/base.bbclass</filename>:</emphasis>
+ BitBake uses class files to provide common code and functionality.
+ The minimally required class for BitBake is the
+ <filename>classes/base.bbclass</filename> file.
+ The <filename>base</filename> class is implicitly inherited by
+ every recipe.
+ BitBake looks for the class in the <filename>classes</filename>
+ directory of the project (i.e <filename>hello/classes</filename>
+ in this example).
+ </para>
+ <para>Create the <filename>classes</filename> directory as follows:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
- $ mkdir conf classes
+ $ cd $HOME/hello
+ $ mkdir classes
</literallayout>
- Once those directories are in place, you can copy the
- sample configuration files provided in the
- BitBake source tree to their appropriate directories.
- First, change to the BitBake source tree directory and
- then copy the directories:
+ Move to the <filename>classes</filename> directory and then
+ create the <filename>base.bbclass</filename> file by inserting
+ this single line:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
- cp conf/bitbake.conf ~/dev/hello/conf/
- cp classes/base.bbclass ~/dev/hello/classes/
+ addtask build
</literallayout>
- At this point your project directory structure should look like
- the following:
- <literallayout class='monospaced'>
- ~/dev/hello$ tree
- .
- |-- classes
- |   +-- base.bbclass
- +-- conf
- +-- bitbake.conf
+ The minimal task that BitBake runs is the
+ <filename>do_build</filename> task.
+ This is all the example needs in order to build the project.
+ Of course, the <filename>base.bbclass</filename> can have much
+ more depending on which build environments BitBake is
+ supporting.
+ For more information on the <filename>base.bbclass</filename> file,
+ you can look at
+ <ulink url='http://hambedded.org/blog/2012/11/24/from-bitbake-hello-world-to-an-image/#tasks'></ulink>.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Run Bitbake:</emphasis>
+ After making sure that the <filename>classes/base.bbclass</filename>
+ file exists, you can run the <filename>bitbake</filename>
+ command again:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ $ bitbake
+ Nothing to do. Use 'bitbake world' to build everything, or run 'bitbake --help' for usage information.
</literallayout>
- </para>
-
- <para>
- Once you have copied these files into your project, you
- can now get back to resolving the <filename>BBPATH</filename>
- issue.
- </para>
+ BitBake is finally reporting no errors.
+ However, you can see that it really does not have anything
+ to do.
+ You need to create a recipe that gives BitBake something to do.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Creating a Layer:</emphasis>
+ While it is not really necessary for such a small example,
+ it is good practice to create a layer in which to keep your
+ code separate from the general metadata used by BitBake.
+ Thus, this example creates and uses a layer called "mylayer".
+ <note>
+ You can find additional information on adding a layer at
+ <ulink url='http://hambedded.org/blog/2012/11/24/from-bitbake-hello-world-to-an-image/#adding-an-example-layer'></ulink>.
+ </note>
+ </para>
+ <para>Minimally, you need a recipe file and a layer configuration
+ file in your layer.
+ The configuration file needs to be in the <filename>conf</filename>
+ directory inside the layer.
+ Use these commands to set up the layer and the <filename>conf</filename>
+ directory:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ $ cd $HOME
+ $ mkdir mylayer
+ $ cd mylayer
+ $ mkdir conf
+ </literallayout>
+ Move to the <filename>conf</filename> directory and create a
+ <filename>layer.conf</filename> file that has the following:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ BBPATH .= ":${<link linkend='var-LAYERDIR'>LAYERDIR</link>}"
- <para>
- The first configuration file that BitBake looks for is always
- <filename>bblayers.conf</filename>.
- With this knowledge, you know that to resolve your
- <filename>BBPATH</filename> error you can add a
- <filename>conf/bblayers.conf</filename> file to the
- project source tree and populate it with the
- <filename>BBPATH</filename> variable declaration.
- </para>
+ <link linkend='var-BBFILES'>BBFILES</link> += "${LAYERDIR}/*.bb"
- <para>
- From your project source tree:
- <literallayout class='monospaced'>
- $ vim conf/bblayers.conf
+ <link linkend='var-BBFILE_COLLECTIONS'>BBFILE_COLLECTIONS</link> += "mylayer"
+ <link linkend='var-BBFILE_PATTERN'>BBFILE_PATTERN_mylayer</link> := "^${LAYERDIR}/"
</literallayout>
- Now add the following to the empty
- <filename>bblayers.conf</filename> file:
+ For information on these variables, click the links
+ to go to the definitions in the glossary.</para>
+ <para>You need to create the recipe file next.
+ Inside your layer at the top-level, use an editor and create
+ a recipe file named <filename>printhello.bb</filename> that
+ has the following:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
- BBPATH := "${TOPDIR}"
+ <link linkend='var-DESCRIPTION'>DESCRIPTION</link> = "Prints Hello World"
+ <link linkend='var-PN'>PN</link> = 'printhello'
+ <link linkend='var-PV'>PV</link> = '1'
+
+ python do_build() {
+ bb.plain("********************");
+ bb.plain("* *");
+ bb.plain("* Hello, World! *");
+ bb.plain("* *");
+ bb.plain("********************");
+ }
</literallayout>
- </para>
+ The recipe file simply provides a description of the
+ recipe, the name, version, and the <filename>do_build</filename>
+ task, which prints out "Hello World" to the console.
+ For more information on these variables, follow the links
+ to the glossary.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Run Bitbake With a Target:</emphasis>
+ Now that a BitBake target exists, run the command and provide
+ that target:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ $ cd $HOME/hello
+ $ bitbake printhello
+ ERROR: no recipe files to build, check your BBPATH and BBFILES?
- <para>
- Now, from the root of your project directory, run BitBake
- again and see what happens:
+ Summary: There was 1 ERROR message shown, returning a non-zero exit code.
+ </literallayout>
+ We have created the layer with the recipe and the layer
+ configuration file but it still seems that BitBake cannot
+ find the recipe.
+ BitBake needs a <filename>conf/bblayers.conf</filename> that
+ lists the layers for the project.
+ Without this file, BitBake cannot find the recipe.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Creating <filename>conf/bblayers.conf</filename>:</emphasis>
+ BitBake uses the <filename>conf/bblayers.conf</filename> file
+ to locate layers needed for the project.
+ This file must reside in the <filename>conf</filename> directory
+ of the project (i.e. <filename>hello/conf</filename> for this
+ example).</para>
+ <para>Set your working directory to the <filename>hello/conf</filename>
+ directory and then create the <filename>bblayers.conf</filename>
+ file so that it contains the following:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
- $ bitbake -DDD
- Nothing to do. Use 'bitbake world' to build everything, or
- run 'bitbake --help' for usage information.
- DEBUG: Removed the following variables from the environment:
- GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID, XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP,
- GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL, DISPLAY, SSH_AGENT_PID, LANG, no_proxy,
- XDG_SESSION_PATH, XAUTHORITY, SESSION_MANAGER, SHLVL,
- MANDATORY_PATH, COMPIZ_CONFIG_PROFILE, WINDOWID, EDITOR,
- GPG_AGENT_INFO, SSH_AUTH_SOCK, GDMSESSION, DEFAULTS_PATH,
- XDG_SEAT_PATH, XDG_CONFIG_DIRS, LESSOPEN,
- DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS, _, XDG_SESSION_COOKIE,
- DESKTOP_SESSION, LESSCLOSE, GNOME_KEYRING_PID, UBUNTU_MENUPROXY,
- OLDPWD, XDG_DATA_DIRS, COLORTERM, LS_COLORS
- DEBUG: Found bblayers.conf (/home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/conf/bblayers.conf)
- DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/conf/bblayers.conf
- DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/conf/bitbake.conf
- DEBUG: BB configuration INHERITs:0: inheriting /home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/classes/base.bbclass
- DEBUG: BB /home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/classes/base.bbclass: handle(data, include)
- DEBUG: LOAD /home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/classes/base.bbclass
- DEBUG: Clearing SRCREV cache due to cache policy of: clear
- DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/tmp/cache/local_file_checksum_cache.dat'
- DEBUG: Using cache in '/home/scott-lenovo/dev/hello/tmp/cache/bb_codeparser.dat'
- DEBUG: Features set [3] (was [3])
+ BBLAYERS ?= " \
+ /home/&lt;you&gt;/mylayer \
+ "
+ </literallayout>
+ You need to provide your own information for
+ <filename>you</filename> in the file.
+ </para></listitem>
+ <listitem><para><emphasis>Run Bitbake With a Target:</emphasis>
+ Now that you have supplied the <filename>bblayers.conf</filename>
+ file, run the <filename>bitbake</filename> command and provide
+ the target:
+ <literallayout class='monospaced'>
+ $ bitbake printhello
+ Parsing recipes: 100% |##################################################################################|
+ Time: 00:00:00
+ Parsing of 1 .bb files complete (0 cached, 1 parsed). 1 targets, 0 skipped, 0 masked, 0 errors.
+ NOTE: Resolving any missing task queue dependencies
+ NOTE: Preparing runqueue
+ NOTE: Executing RunQueue Tasks
+ ********************
+ * *
+ * Hello, World! *
+ * *
+ ********************
+ NOTE: Tasks Summary: Attempted 1 tasks of which 0 didn't need to be rerun and all succeeded.
</literallayout>
+ BitBake finds the <filename>printhello</filename> recipe and
+ successfully runs the task.
<note>
- From this point forward in the example, the environment
- variable removal messages are ignored and omitted.
- Examine the relevant DEBUG messages:
+ Rerunning the task without removing the <filename>tmp</filename>
+ directory will not result in a BitBake run that prints the
+ same console output.
+ BitBake uses its Setscene process and determines that
+ nothing needs to be re-run.
+ If you delete the <filename>tmp</filename> directory and
+ then re-run the build, the printed output appears
+ at the console.
</note>
- </para>
- </section>
+ </para></listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
</section>
</appendix>