aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorBruce Ashfield <bruce.ashfield@gmail.com>2019-09-23 12:15:59 -0400
committerBruce Ashfield <bruce.ashfield@gmail.com>2019-09-23 12:15:59 -0400
commit9491d3821c562602414e3886ffe2ff10d9e6d09a (patch)
treea152606b47427795aa794a07d592cf98dc00c865
parentebe62e081f6a9a66ba62a209df60f8e92517890c (diff)
parent6bf4f23f8d873f2794099eb56204a694e8835b4b (diff)
downloadlinux-yocto-v4.18/standard/beaglebone.tar.gz
linux-yocto-v4.18/standard/beaglebone.tar.bz2
linux-yocto-v4.18/standard/beaglebone.zip
This is the 4.18.45 stable release # gpg: Signature made Sat 21 Sep 2019 12:20:15 PM EDT # gpg: using RSA key EBCE84042C07D1D6 # gpg: Can't check signature: No public key
-rw-r--r--Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/spectre.rst769
-rw-r--r--Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst2
-rw-r--r--Makefile2
-rw-r--r--arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c21
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/entry/calling.h17
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S21
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h4
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h20
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c105
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c94
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpuid-deps.c3
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kernel/cpu/scattered.c4
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.h2
-rw-r--r--tools/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h6
16 files changed, 993 insertions, 84 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst
index ffc064c1ec68..49311f3da6f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst
@@ -9,5 +9,6 @@ are configurable at compile, boot or run time.
.. toctree::
:maxdepth: 1
+ spectre
l1tf
mds
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/spectre.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/spectre.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e05e581af5cf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/spectre.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,769 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Spectre Side Channels
+=====================
+
+Spectre is a class of side channel attacks that exploit branch prediction
+and speculative execution on modern CPUs to read memory, possibly
+bypassing access controls. Speculative execution side channel exploits
+do not modify memory but attempt to infer privileged data in the memory.
+
+This document covers Spectre variant 1 and Spectre variant 2.
+
+Affected processors
+-------------------
+
+Speculative execution side channel methods affect a wide range of modern
+high performance processors, since most modern high speed processors
+use branch prediction and speculative execution.
+
+The following CPUs are vulnerable:
+
+ - Intel Core, Atom, Pentium, and Xeon processors
+
+ - AMD Phenom, EPYC, and Zen processors
+
+ - IBM POWER and zSeries processors
+
+ - Higher end ARM processors
+
+ - Apple CPUs
+
+ - Higher end MIPS CPUs
+
+ - Likely most other high performance CPUs. Contact your CPU vendor for details.
+
+Whether a processor is affected or not can be read out from the Spectre
+vulnerability files in sysfs. See :ref:`spectre_sys_info`.
+
+Related CVEs
+------------
+
+The following CVE entries describe Spectre variants:
+
+ ============= ======================= ==========================
+ CVE-2017-5753 Bounds check bypass Spectre variant 1
+ CVE-2017-5715 Branch target injection Spectre variant 2
+ CVE-2019-1125 Spectre v1 swapgs Spectre variant 1 (swapgs)
+ ============= ======================= ==========================
+
+Problem
+-------
+
+CPUs use speculative operations to improve performance. That may leave
+traces of memory accesses or computations in the processor's caches,
+buffers, and branch predictors. Malicious software may be able to
+influence the speculative execution paths, and then use the side effects
+of the speculative execution in the CPUs' caches and buffers to infer
+privileged data touched during the speculative execution.
+
+Spectre variant 1 attacks take advantage of speculative execution of
+conditional branches, while Spectre variant 2 attacks use speculative
+execution of indirect branches to leak privileged memory.
+See :ref:`[1] <spec_ref1>` :ref:`[5] <spec_ref5>` :ref:`[7] <spec_ref7>`
+:ref:`[10] <spec_ref10>` :ref:`[11] <spec_ref11>`.
+
+Spectre variant 1 (Bounds Check Bypass)
+---------------------------------------
+
+The bounds check bypass attack :ref:`[2] <spec_ref2>` takes advantage
+of speculative execution that bypasses conditional branch instructions
+used for memory access bounds check (e.g. checking if the index of an
+array results in memory access within a valid range). This results in
+memory accesses to invalid memory (with out-of-bound index) that are
+done speculatively before validation checks resolve. Such speculative
+memory accesses can leave side effects, creating side channels which
+leak information to the attacker.
+
+There are some extensions of Spectre variant 1 attacks for reading data
+over the network, see :ref:`[12] <spec_ref12>`. However such attacks
+are difficult, low bandwidth, fragile, and are considered low risk.
+
+Note that, despite "Bounds Check Bypass" name, Spectre variant 1 is not
+only about user-controlled array bounds checks. It can affect any
+conditional checks. The kernel entry code interrupt, exception, and NMI
+handlers all have conditional swapgs checks. Those may be problematic
+in the context of Spectre v1, as kernel code can speculatively run with
+a user GS.
+
+Spectre variant 2 (Branch Target Injection)
+-------------------------------------------
+
+The branch target injection attack takes advantage of speculative
+execution of indirect branches :ref:`[3] <spec_ref3>`. The indirect
+branch predictors inside the processor used to guess the target of
+indirect branches can be influenced by an attacker, causing gadget code
+to be speculatively executed, thus exposing sensitive data touched by
+the victim. The side effects left in the CPU's caches during speculative
+execution can be measured to infer data values.
+
+.. _poison_btb:
+
+In Spectre variant 2 attacks, the attacker can steer speculative indirect
+branches in the victim to gadget code by poisoning the branch target
+buffer of a CPU used for predicting indirect branch addresses. Such
+poisoning could be done by indirect branching into existing code,
+with the address offset of the indirect branch under the attacker's
+control. Since the branch prediction on impacted hardware does not
+fully disambiguate branch address and uses the offset for prediction,
+this could cause privileged code's indirect branch to jump to a gadget
+code with the same offset.
+
+The most useful gadgets take an attacker-controlled input parameter (such
+as a register value) so that the memory read can be controlled. Gadgets
+without input parameters might be possible, but the attacker would have
+very little control over what memory can be read, reducing the risk of
+the attack revealing useful data.
+
+One other variant 2 attack vector is for the attacker to poison the
+return stack buffer (RSB) :ref:`[13] <spec_ref13>` to cause speculative
+subroutine return instruction execution to go to a gadget. An attacker's
+imbalanced subroutine call instructions might "poison" entries in the
+return stack buffer which are later consumed by a victim's subroutine
+return instructions. This attack can be mitigated by flushing the return
+stack buffer on context switch, or virtual machine (VM) exit.
+
+On systems with simultaneous multi-threading (SMT), attacks are possible
+from the sibling thread, as level 1 cache and branch target buffer
+(BTB) may be shared between hardware threads in a CPU core. A malicious
+program running on the sibling thread may influence its peer's BTB to
+steer its indirect branch speculations to gadget code, and measure the
+speculative execution's side effects left in level 1 cache to infer the
+victim's data.
+
+Attack scenarios
+----------------
+
+The following list of attack scenarios have been anticipated, but may
+not cover all possible attack vectors.
+
+1. A user process attacking the kernel
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Spectre variant 1
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+ The attacker passes a parameter to the kernel via a register or
+ via a known address in memory during a syscall. Such parameter may
+ be used later by the kernel as an index to an array or to derive
+ a pointer for a Spectre variant 1 attack. The index or pointer
+ is invalid, but bound checks are bypassed in the code branch taken
+ for speculative execution. This could cause privileged memory to be
+ accessed and leaked.
+
+ For kernel code that has been identified where data pointers could
+ potentially be influenced for Spectre attacks, new "nospec" accessor
+ macros are used to prevent speculative loading of data.
+
+Spectre variant 1 (swapgs)
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+ An attacker can train the branch predictor to speculatively skip the
+ swapgs path for an interrupt or exception. If they initialize
+ the GS register to a user-space value, if the swapgs is speculatively
+ skipped, subsequent GS-related percpu accesses in the speculation
+ window will be done with the attacker-controlled GS value. This
+ could cause privileged memory to be accessed and leaked.
+
+ For example:
+
+ ::
+
+ if (coming from user space)
+ swapgs
+ mov %gs:<percpu_offset>, %reg
+ mov (%reg), %reg1
+
+ When coming from user space, the CPU can speculatively skip the
+ swapgs, and then do a speculative percpu load using the user GS
+ value. So the user can speculatively force a read of any kernel
+ value. If a gadget exists which uses the percpu value as an address
+ in another load/store, then the contents of the kernel value may
+ become visible via an L1 side channel attack.
+
+ A similar attack exists when coming from kernel space. The CPU can
+ speculatively do the swapgs, causing the user GS to get used for the
+ rest of the speculative window.
+
+Spectre variant 2
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+ A spectre variant 2 attacker can :ref:`poison <poison_btb>` the branch
+ target buffer (BTB) before issuing syscall to launch an attack.
+ After entering the kernel, the kernel could use the poisoned branch
+ target buffer on indirect jump and jump to gadget code in speculative
+ execution.
+
+ If an attacker tries to control the memory addresses leaked during
+ speculative execution, he would also need to pass a parameter to the
+ gadget, either through a register or a known address in memory. After
+ the gadget has executed, he can measure the side effect.
+
+ The kernel can protect itself against consuming poisoned branch
+ target buffer entries by using return trampolines (also known as
+ "retpoline") :ref:`[3] <spec_ref3>` :ref:`[9] <spec_ref9>` for all
+ indirect branches. Return trampolines trap speculative execution paths
+ to prevent jumping to gadget code during speculative execution.
+ x86 CPUs with Enhanced Indirect Branch Restricted Speculation
+ (Enhanced IBRS) available in hardware should use the feature to
+ mitigate Spectre variant 2 instead of retpoline. Enhanced IBRS is
+ more efficient than retpoline.
+
+ There may be gadget code in firmware which could be exploited with
+ Spectre variant 2 attack by a rogue user process. To mitigate such
+ attacks on x86, Indirect Branch Restricted Speculation (IBRS) feature
+ is turned on before the kernel invokes any firmware code.
+
+2. A user process attacking another user process
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ A malicious user process can try to attack another user process,
+ either via a context switch on the same hardware thread, or from the
+ sibling hyperthread sharing a physical processor core on simultaneous
+ multi-threading (SMT) system.
+
+ Spectre variant 1 attacks generally require passing parameters
+ between the processes, which needs a data passing relationship, such
+ as remote procedure calls (RPC). Those parameters are used in gadget
+ code to derive invalid data pointers accessing privileged memory in
+ the attacked process.
+
+ Spectre variant 2 attacks can be launched from a rogue process by
+ :ref:`poisoning <poison_btb>` the branch target buffer. This can
+ influence the indirect branch targets for a victim process that either
+ runs later on the same hardware thread, or running concurrently on
+ a sibling hardware thread sharing the same physical core.
+
+ A user process can protect itself against Spectre variant 2 attacks
+ by using the prctl() syscall to disable indirect branch speculation
+ for itself. An administrator can also cordon off an unsafe process
+ from polluting the branch target buffer by disabling the process's
+ indirect branch speculation. This comes with a performance cost
+ from not using indirect branch speculation and clearing the branch
+ target buffer. When SMT is enabled on x86, for a process that has
+ indirect branch speculation disabled, Single Threaded Indirect Branch
+ Predictors (STIBP) :ref:`[4] <spec_ref4>` are turned on to prevent the
+ sibling thread from controlling branch target buffer. In addition,
+ the Indirect Branch Prediction Barrier (IBPB) is issued to clear the
+ branch target buffer when context switching to and from such process.
+
+ On x86, the return stack buffer is stuffed on context switch.
+ This prevents the branch target buffer from being used for branch
+ prediction when the return stack buffer underflows while switching to
+ a deeper call stack. Any poisoned entries in the return stack buffer
+ left by the previous process will also be cleared.
+
+ User programs should use address space randomization to make attacks
+ more difficult (Set /proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space = 1 or 2).
+
+3. A virtualized guest attacking the host
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The attack mechanism is similar to how user processes attack the
+ kernel. The kernel is entered via hyper-calls or other virtualization
+ exit paths.
+
+ For Spectre variant 1 attacks, rogue guests can pass parameters
+ (e.g. in registers) via hyper-calls to derive invalid pointers to
+ speculate into privileged memory after entering the kernel. For places
+ where such kernel code has been identified, nospec accessor macros
+ are used to stop speculative memory access.
+
+ For Spectre variant 2 attacks, rogue guests can :ref:`poison
+ <poison_btb>` the branch target buffer or return stack buffer, causing
+ the kernel to jump to gadget code in the speculative execution paths.
+
+ To mitigate variant 2, the host kernel can use return trampolines
+ for indirect branches to bypass the poisoned branch target buffer,
+ and flushing the return stack buffer on VM exit. This prevents rogue
+ guests from affecting indirect branching in the host kernel.
+
+ To protect host processes from rogue guests, host processes can have
+ indirect branch speculation disabled via prctl(). The branch target
+ buffer is cleared before context switching to such processes.
+
+4. A virtualized guest attacking other guest
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ A rogue guest may attack another guest to get data accessible by the
+ other guest.
+
+ Spectre variant 1 attacks are possible if parameters can be passed
+ between guests. This may be done via mechanisms such as shared memory
+ or message passing. Such parameters could be used to derive data
+ pointers to privileged data in guest. The privileged data could be
+ accessed by gadget code in the victim's speculation paths.
+
+ Spectre variant 2 attacks can be launched from a rogue guest by
+ :ref:`poisoning <poison_btb>` the branch target buffer or the return
+ stack buffer. Such poisoned entries could be used to influence
+ speculation execution paths in the victim guest.
+
+ Linux kernel mitigates attacks to other guests running in the same
+ CPU hardware thread by flushing the return stack buffer on VM exit,
+ and clearing the branch target buffer before switching to a new guest.
+
+ If SMT is used, Spectre variant 2 attacks from an untrusted guest
+ in the sibling hyperthread can be mitigated by the administrator,
+ by turning off the unsafe guest's indirect branch speculation via
+ prctl(). A guest can also protect itself by turning on microcode
+ based mitigations (such as IBPB or STIBP on x86) within the guest.
+
+.. _spectre_sys_info:
+
+Spectre system information
+--------------------------
+
+The Linux kernel provides a sysfs interface to enumerate the current
+mitigation status of the system for Spectre: whether the system is
+vulnerable, and which mitigations are active.
+
+The sysfs file showing Spectre variant 1 mitigation status is:
+
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/spectre_v1
+
+The possible values in this file are:
+
+ .. list-table::
+
+ * - 'Not affected'
+ - The processor is not vulnerable.
+ * - 'Vulnerable: __user pointer sanitization and usercopy barriers only; no swapgs barriers'
+ - The swapgs protections are disabled; otherwise it has
+ protection in the kernel on a case by case base with explicit
+ pointer sanitation and usercopy LFENCE barriers.
+ * - 'Mitigation: usercopy/swapgs barriers and __user pointer sanitization'
+ - Protection in the kernel on a case by case base with explicit
+ pointer sanitation, usercopy LFENCE barriers, and swapgs LFENCE
+ barriers.
+
+However, the protections are put in place on a case by case basis,
+and there is no guarantee that all possible attack vectors for Spectre
+variant 1 are covered.
+
+The spectre_v2 kernel file reports if the kernel has been compiled with
+retpoline mitigation or if the CPU has hardware mitigation, and if the
+CPU has support for additional process-specific mitigation.
+
+This file also reports CPU features enabled by microcode to mitigate
+attack between user processes:
+
+1. Indirect Branch Prediction Barrier (IBPB) to add additional
+ isolation between processes of different users.
+2. Single Thread Indirect Branch Predictors (STIBP) to add additional
+ isolation between CPU threads running on the same core.
+
+These CPU features may impact performance when used and can be enabled
+per process on a case-by-case base.
+
+The sysfs file showing Spectre variant 2 mitigation status is:
+
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/spectre_v2
+
+The possible values in this file are:
+
+ - Kernel status:
+
+ ==================================== =================================
+ 'Not affected' The processor is not vulnerable
+ 'Vulnerable' Vulnerable, no mitigation
+ 'Mitigation: Full generic retpoline' Software-focused mitigation
+ 'Mitigation: Full AMD retpoline' AMD-specific software mitigation
+ 'Mitigation: Enhanced IBRS' Hardware-focused mitigation
+ ==================================== =================================
+
+ - Firmware status: Show if Indirect Branch Restricted Speculation (IBRS) is
+ used to protect against Spectre variant 2 attacks when calling firmware (x86 only).
+
+ ========== =============================================================
+ 'IBRS_FW' Protection against user program attacks when calling firmware
+ ========== =============================================================
+
+ - Indirect branch prediction barrier (IBPB) status for protection between
+ processes of different users. This feature can be controlled through
+ prctl() per process, or through kernel command line options. This is
+ an x86 only feature. For more details see below.
+
+ =================== ========================================================
+ 'IBPB: disabled' IBPB unused
+ 'IBPB: always-on' Use IBPB on all tasks
+ 'IBPB: conditional' Use IBPB on SECCOMP or indirect branch restricted tasks
+ =================== ========================================================
+
+ - Single threaded indirect branch prediction (STIBP) status for protection
+ between different hyper threads. This feature can be controlled through
+ prctl per process, or through kernel command line options. This is x86
+ only feature. For more details see below.
+
+ ==================== ========================================================
+ 'STIBP: disabled' STIBP unused
+ 'STIBP: forced' Use STIBP on all tasks
+ 'STIBP: conditional' Use STIBP on SECCOMP or indirect branch restricted tasks
+ ==================== ========================================================
+
+ - Return stack buffer (RSB) protection status:
+
+ ============= ===========================================
+ 'RSB filling' Protection of RSB on context switch enabled
+ ============= ===========================================
+
+Full mitigation might require a microcode update from the CPU
+vendor. When the necessary microcode is not available, the kernel will
+report vulnerability.
+
+Turning on mitigation for Spectre variant 1 and Spectre variant 2
+-----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+1. Kernel mitigation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Spectre variant 1
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+ For the Spectre variant 1, vulnerable kernel code (as determined
+ by code audit or scanning tools) is annotated on a case by case
+ basis to use nospec accessor macros for bounds clipping :ref:`[2]
+ <spec_ref2>` to avoid any usable disclosure gadgets. However, it may
+ not cover all attack vectors for Spectre variant 1.
+
+ Copy-from-user code has an LFENCE barrier to prevent the access_ok()
+ check from being mis-speculated. The barrier is done by the
+ barrier_nospec() macro.
+
+ For the swapgs variant of Spectre variant 1, LFENCE barriers are
+ added to interrupt, exception and NMI entry where needed. These
+ barriers are done by the FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL_ENTRY and
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY macros.
+
+Spectre variant 2
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+ For Spectre variant 2 mitigation, the compiler turns indirect calls or
+ jumps in the kernel into equivalent return trampolines (retpolines)
+ :ref:`[3] <spec_ref3>` :ref:`[9] <spec_ref9>` to go to the target
+ addresses. Speculative execution paths under retpolines are trapped
+ in an infinite loop to prevent any speculative execution jumping to
+ a gadget.
+
+ To turn on retpoline mitigation on a vulnerable CPU, the kernel
+ needs to be compiled with a gcc compiler that supports the
+ -mindirect-branch=thunk-extern -mindirect-branch-register options.
+ If the kernel is compiled with a Clang compiler, the compiler needs
+ to support -mretpoline-external-thunk option. The kernel config
+ CONFIG_RETPOLINE needs to be turned on, and the CPU needs to run with
+ the latest updated microcode.
+
+ On Intel Skylake-era systems the mitigation covers most, but not all,
+ cases. See :ref:`[3] <spec_ref3>` for more details.
+
+ On CPUs with hardware mitigation for Spectre variant 2 (e.g. Enhanced
+ IBRS on x86), retpoline is automatically disabled at run time.
+
+ The retpoline mitigation is turned on by default on vulnerable
+ CPUs. It can be forced on or off by the administrator
+ via the kernel command line and sysfs control files. See
+ :ref:`spectre_mitigation_control_command_line`.
+
+ On x86, indirect branch restricted speculation is turned on by default
+ before invoking any firmware code to prevent Spectre variant 2 exploits
+ using the firmware.
+
+ Using kernel address space randomization (CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_SLAB=y
+ and CONFIG_SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM=y in the kernel configuration) makes
+ attacks on the kernel generally more difficult.
+
+2. User program mitigation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ User programs can mitigate Spectre variant 1 using LFENCE or "bounds
+ clipping". For more details see :ref:`[2] <spec_ref2>`.
+
+ For Spectre variant 2 mitigation, individual user programs
+ can be compiled with return trampolines for indirect branches.
+ This protects them from consuming poisoned entries in the branch
+ target buffer left by malicious software. Alternatively, the
+ programs can disable their indirect branch speculation via prctl()
+ (See :ref:`Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst <set_spec_ctrl>`).
+ On x86, this will turn on STIBP to guard against attacks from the
+ sibling thread when the user program is running, and use IBPB to
+ flush the branch target buffer when switching to/from the program.
+
+ Restricting indirect branch speculation on a user program will
+ also prevent the program from launching a variant 2 attack
+ on x86. All sand-boxed SECCOMP programs have indirect branch
+ speculation restricted by default. Administrators can change
+ that behavior via the kernel command line and sysfs control files.
+ See :ref:`spectre_mitigation_control_command_line`.
+
+ Programs that disable their indirect branch speculation will have
+ more overhead and run slower.
+
+ User programs should use address space randomization
+ (/proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space = 1 or 2) to make attacks more
+ difficult.
+
+3. VM mitigation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ Within the kernel, Spectre variant 1 attacks from rogue guests are
+ mitigated on a case by case basis in VM exit paths. Vulnerable code
+ uses nospec accessor macros for "bounds clipping", to avoid any
+ usable disclosure gadgets. However, this may not cover all variant
+ 1 attack vectors.
+
+ For Spectre variant 2 attacks from rogue guests to the kernel, the
+ Linux kernel uses retpoline or Enhanced IBRS to prevent consumption of
+ poisoned entries in branch target buffer left by rogue guests. It also
+ flushes the return stack buffer on every VM exit to prevent a return
+ stack buffer underflow so poisoned branch target buffer could be used,
+ or attacker guests leaving poisoned entries in the return stack buffer.
+
+ To mitigate guest-to-guest attacks in the same CPU hardware thread,
+ the branch target buffer is sanitized by flushing before switching
+ to a new guest on a CPU.
+
+ The above mitigations are turned on by default on vulnerable CPUs.
+
+ To mitigate guest-to-guest attacks from sibling thread when SMT is
+ in use, an untrusted guest running in the sibling thread can have
+ its indirect branch speculation disabled by administrator via prctl().
+
+ The kernel also allows guests to use any microcode based mitigation
+ they choose to use (such as IBPB or STIBP on x86) to protect themselves.
+
+.. _spectre_mitigation_control_command_line:
+
+Mitigation control on the kernel command line
+---------------------------------------------
+
+Spectre variant 2 mitigation can be disabled or force enabled at the
+kernel command line.
+
+ nospectre_v1
+
+ [X86,PPC] Disable mitigations for Spectre Variant 1
+ (bounds check bypass). With this option data leaks are
+ possible in the system.
+
+ nospectre_v2
+
+ [X86] Disable all mitigations for the Spectre variant 2
+ (indirect branch prediction) vulnerability. System may
+ allow data leaks with this option, which is equivalent
+ to spectre_v2=off.
+
+
+ spectre_v2=
+
+ [X86] Control mitigation of Spectre variant 2
+ (indirect branch speculation) vulnerability.
+ The default operation protects the kernel from
+ user space attacks.
+
+ on
+ unconditionally enable, implies
+ spectre_v2_user=on
+ off
+ unconditionally disable, implies
+ spectre_v2_user=off
+ auto
+ kernel detects whether your CPU model is
+ vulnerable
+
+ Selecting 'on' will, and 'auto' may, choose a
+ mitigation method at run time according to the
+ CPU, the available microcode, the setting of the
+ CONFIG_RETPOLINE configuration option, and the
+ compiler with which the kernel was built.
+
+ Selecting 'on' will also enable the mitigation
+ against user space to user space task attacks.
+
+ Selecting 'off' will disable both the kernel and
+ the user space protections.
+
+ Specific mitigations can also be selected manually:
+
+ retpoline
+ replace indirect branches
+ retpoline,generic
+ google's original retpoline
+ retpoline,amd
+ AMD-specific minimal thunk
+
+ Not specifying this option is equivalent to
+ spectre_v2=auto.
+
+For user space mitigation:
+
+ spectre_v2_user=
+
+ [X86] Control mitigation of Spectre variant 2
+ (indirect branch speculation) vulnerability between
+ user space tasks
+
+ on
+ Unconditionally enable mitigations. Is
+ enforced by spectre_v2=on
+
+ off
+ Unconditionally disable mitigations. Is
+ enforced by spectre_v2=off
+
+ prctl
+ Indirect branch speculation is enabled,
+ but mitigation can be enabled via prctl
+ per thread. The mitigation control state
+ is inherited on fork.
+
+ prctl,ibpb
+ Like "prctl" above, but only STIBP is
+ controlled per thread. IBPB is issued
+ always when switching between different user
+ space processes.
+
+ seccomp
+ Same as "prctl" above, but all seccomp
+ threads will enable the mitigation unless
+ they explicitly opt out.
+
+ seccomp,ibpb
+ Like "seccomp" above, but only STIBP is
+ controlled per thread. IBPB is issued
+ always when switching between different
+ user space processes.
+
+ auto
+ Kernel selects the mitigation depending on
+ the available CPU features and vulnerability.
+
+ Default mitigation:
+ If CONFIG_SECCOMP=y then "seccomp", otherwise "prctl"
+
+ Not specifying this option is equivalent to
+ spectre_v2_user=auto.
+
+ In general the kernel by default selects
+ reasonable mitigations for the current CPU. To
+ disable Spectre variant 2 mitigations, boot with
+ spectre_v2=off. Spectre variant 1 mitigations
+ cannot be disabled.
+
+Mitigation selection guide
+--------------------------
+
+1. Trusted userspace
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ If all userspace applications are from trusted sources and do not
+ execute externally supplied untrusted code, then the mitigations can
+ be disabled.
+
+2. Protect sensitive programs
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ For security-sensitive programs that have secrets (e.g. crypto
+ keys), protection against Spectre variant 2 can be put in place by
+ disabling indirect branch speculation when the program is running
+ (See :ref:`Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst <set_spec_ctrl>`).
+
+3. Sandbox untrusted programs
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ Untrusted programs that could be a source of attacks can be cordoned
+ off by disabling their indirect branch speculation when they are run
+ (See :ref:`Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst <set_spec_ctrl>`).
+ This prevents untrusted programs from polluting the branch target
+ buffer. All programs running in SECCOMP sandboxes have indirect
+ branch speculation restricted by default. This behavior can be
+ changed via the kernel command line and sysfs control files. See
+ :ref:`spectre_mitigation_control_command_line`.
+
+3. High security mode
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ All Spectre variant 2 mitigations can be forced on
+ at boot time for all programs (See the "on" option in
+ :ref:`spectre_mitigation_control_command_line`). This will add
+ overhead as indirect branch speculations for all programs will be
+ restricted.
+
+ On x86, branch target buffer will be flushed with IBPB when switching
+ to a new program. STIBP is left on all the time to protect programs
+ against variant 2 attacks originating from programs running on
+ sibling threads.
+
+ Alternatively, STIBP can be used only when running programs
+ whose indirect branch speculation is explicitly disabled,
+ while IBPB is still used all the time when switching to a new
+ program to clear the branch target buffer (See "ibpb" option in
+ :ref:`spectre_mitigation_control_command_line`). This "ibpb" option
+ has less performance cost than the "on" option, which leaves STIBP
+ on all the time.
+
+References on Spectre
+---------------------
+
+Intel white papers:
+
+.. _spec_ref1:
+
+[1] `Intel analysis of speculative execution side channels <https://newsroom.intel.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/11/2018/01/Intel-Analysis-of-Speculative-Execution-Side-Channels.pdf>`_.
+
+.. _spec_ref2:
+
+[2] `Bounds check bypass <https://software.intel.com/security-software-guidance/software-guidance/bounds-check-bypass>`_.
+
+.. _spec_ref3:
+
+[3] `Deep dive: Retpoline: A branch target injection mitigation <https://software.intel.com/security-software-guidance/insights/deep-dive-retpoline-branch-target-injection-mitigation>`_.
+
+.. _spec_ref4:
+
+[4] `Deep Dive: Single Thread Indirect Branch Predictors <https://software.intel.com/security-software-guidance/insights/deep-dive-single-thread-indirect-branch-predictors>`_.
+
+AMD white papers:
+
+.. _spec_ref5:
+
+[5] `AMD64 technology indirect branch control extension <https://developer.amd.com/wp-content/resources/Architecture_Guidelines_Update_Indirect_Branch_Control.pdf>`_.
+
+.. _spec_ref6:
+
+[6] `Software techniques for managing speculation on AMD processors <https://developer.amd.com/wp-content/resources/90343-B_SoftwareTechniquesforManagingSpeculation_WP_7-18Update_FNL.pdf>`_.
+
+ARM white papers:
+
+.. _spec_ref7:
+
+[7] `Cache speculation side-channels <https://developer.arm.com/support/arm-security-updates/speculative-processor-vulnerability/download-the-whitepaper>`_.
+
+.. _spec_ref8:
+
+[8] `Cache speculation issues update <https://developer.arm.com/support/arm-security-updates/speculative-processor-vulnerability/latest-updates/cache-speculation-issues-update>`_.
+
+Google white paper:
+
+.. _spec_ref9:
+
+[9] `Retpoline: a software construct for preventing branch-target-injection <https://support.google.com/faqs/answer/7625886>`_.
+
+MIPS white paper:
+
+.. _spec_ref10:
+
+[10] `MIPS: response on speculative execution and side channel vulnerabilities <https://www.mips.com/blog/mips-response-on-speculative-execution-and-side-channel-vulnerabilities/>`_.
+
+Academic papers:
+
+.. _spec_ref11:
+
+[11] `Spectre Attacks: Exploiting Speculative Execution <https://spectreattack.com/spectre.pdf>`_.
+
+.. _spec_ref12:
+
+[12] `NetSpectre: Read Arbitrary Memory over Network <https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.10535>`_.
+
+.. _spec_ref13:
+
+[13] `Spectre Returns! Speculation Attacks using the Return Stack Buffer <https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/woot18/woot18-paper-koruyeh.pdf>`_.
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
index 1b7cf734dfe6..f5d0e4f5b599 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -2481,7 +2481,7 @@
improves system performance, but it may also
expose users to several CPU vulnerabilities.
Equivalent to: nopti [X86,PPC]
- nospectre_v1 [PPC]
+ nospectre_v1 [X86,PPC]
nobp=0 [S390]
nospectre_v2 [X86,PPC,S390]
spectre_v2_user=off [X86]
@@ -2829,6 +2829,10 @@
nosmt=force: Force disable SMT, cannot be undone
via the sysfs control file.
+ nospectre_v1 [X86,PPC] Disable mitigations for Spectre Variant 1
+ (bounds check bypass). With this option data leaks are
+ possible in the system.
+
nospectre_v2 [X86,PPC_FSL_BOOK3E] Disable all mitigations for the Spectre variant 2
(indirect branch prediction) vulnerability. System may
allow data leaks with this option, which is equivalent
diff --git a/Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst b/Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst
index c4dbe6f7cdae..0fda8f614110 100644
--- a/Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst
+++ b/Documentation/userspace-api/spec_ctrl.rst
@@ -47,6 +47,8 @@ If PR_SPEC_PRCTL is set, then the per-task control of the mitigation is
available. If not set, prctl(PR_SET_SPECULATION_CTRL) for the speculation
misfeature will fail.
+.. _set_spec_ctrl:
+
PR_SET_SPECULATION_CTRL
-----------------------
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 9d3e6845e9d4..7a4a96452208 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
VERSION = 4
PATCHLEVEL = 18
-SUBLEVEL = 44
+SUBLEVEL = 45
EXTRAVERSION =
NAME = Merciless Moray
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c
index 43b7b2ab5eed..cf6b3cea195e 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c
@@ -107,22 +107,9 @@ static inline bool msr_tm_active(unsigned long msr)
return MSR_TM_ACTIVE(msr);
}
-static bool tm_active_with_fp(struct task_struct *tsk)
-{
- return msr_tm_active(tsk->thread.regs->msr) &&
- (tsk->thread.ckpt_regs.msr & MSR_FP);
-}
-
-static bool tm_active_with_altivec(struct task_struct *tsk)
-{
- return msr_tm_active(tsk->thread.regs->msr) &&
- (tsk->thread.ckpt_regs.msr & MSR_VEC);
-}
#else
static inline bool msr_tm_active(unsigned long msr) { return false; }
static inline void check_if_tm_restore_required(struct task_struct *tsk) { }
-static inline bool tm_active_with_fp(struct task_struct *tsk) { return false; }
-static inline bool tm_active_with_altivec(struct task_struct *tsk) { return false; }
#endif /* CONFIG_PPC_TRANSACTIONAL_MEM */
bool strict_msr_control;
@@ -256,7 +243,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(enable_kernel_fp);
static int restore_fp(struct task_struct *tsk)
{
- if (tsk->thread.load_fp || tm_active_with_fp(tsk)) {
+ if (tsk->thread.load_fp) {
load_fp_state(&current->thread.fp_state);
current->thread.load_fp++;
return 1;
@@ -337,8 +324,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(flush_altivec_to_thread);
static int restore_altivec(struct task_struct *tsk)
{
- if (cpu_has_feature(CPU_FTR_ALTIVEC) &&
- (tsk->thread.load_vec || tm_active_with_altivec(tsk))) {
+ if (cpu_has_feature(CPU_FTR_ALTIVEC) && (tsk->thread.load_vec)) {
load_vr_state(&tsk->thread.vr_state);
tsk->thread.used_vr = 1;
tsk->thread.load_vec++;
@@ -499,13 +485,14 @@ void giveup_all(struct task_struct *tsk)
if (!tsk->thread.regs)
return;
+ check_if_tm_restore_required(tsk);
+
usermsr = tsk->thread.regs->msr;
if ((usermsr & msr_all_available) == 0)
return;
msr_check_and_set(msr_all_available);
- check_if_tm_restore_required(tsk);
WARN_ON((usermsr & MSR_VSX) && !((usermsr & MSR_FP) && (usermsr & MSR_VEC)));
diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/calling.h b/arch/x86/entry/calling.h
index 352e70cd33e8..cf0718b9b0af 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/calling.h
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/calling.h
@@ -329,6 +329,23 @@ For 32-bit we have the following conventions - kernel is built with
#endif
+/*
+ * Mitigate Spectre v1 for conditional swapgs code paths.
+ *
+ * FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY is used in the user entry swapgs code path, to
+ * prevent a speculative swapgs when coming from kernel space.
+ *
+ * FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL_ENTRY is used in the kernel entry non-swapgs code path,
+ * to prevent the swapgs from getting speculatively skipped when coming from
+ * user space.
+ */
+.macro FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY
+ ALTERNATIVE "", "lfence", X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_USER
+.endm
+.macro FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL_ENTRY
+ ALTERNATIVE "", "lfence", X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL
+.endm
+
#endif /* CONFIG_X86_64 */
/*
diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S b/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S
index 6962318015f7..d7753fb25bc6 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S
@@ -569,7 +569,7 @@ ENTRY(interrupt_entry)
testb $3, CS-ORIG_RAX+8(%rsp)
jz 1f
SWAPGS
-
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY
/*
* Switch to the thread stack. The IRET frame and orig_ax are
* on the stack, as well as the return address. RDI..R12 are
@@ -599,8 +599,10 @@ ENTRY(interrupt_entry)
UNWIND_HINT_FUNC
movq (%rdi), %rdi
+ jmp 2f
1:
-
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL_ENTRY
+2:
PUSH_AND_CLEAR_REGS save_ret=1
ENCODE_FRAME_POINTER 8
@@ -1208,6 +1210,13 @@ ENTRY(paranoid_entry)
1:
SAVE_AND_SWITCH_TO_KERNEL_CR3 scratch_reg=%rax save_reg=%r14
+ /*
+ * The above SAVE_AND_SWITCH_TO_KERNEL_CR3 macro doesn't do an
+ * unconditional CR3 write, even in the PTI case. So do an lfence
+ * to prevent GS speculation, regardless of whether PTI is enabled.
+ */
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL_ENTRY
+
ret
END(paranoid_entry)
@@ -1256,6 +1265,7 @@ ENTRY(error_entry)
* from user mode due to an IRET fault.
*/
SWAPGS
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY
/* We have user CR3. Change to kernel CR3. */
SWITCH_TO_KERNEL_CR3 scratch_reg=%rax
@@ -1277,6 +1287,8 @@ ENTRY(error_entry)
CALL_enter_from_user_mode
ret
+.Lerror_entry_done_lfence:
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL_ENTRY
.Lerror_entry_done:
TRACE_IRQS_OFF
ret
@@ -1295,7 +1307,7 @@ ENTRY(error_entry)
cmpq %rax, RIP+8(%rsp)
je .Lbstep_iret
cmpq $.Lgs_change, RIP+8(%rsp)
- jne .Lerror_entry_done
+ jne .Lerror_entry_done_lfence
/*
* hack: .Lgs_change can fail with user gsbase. If this happens, fix up
@@ -1303,6 +1315,7 @@ ENTRY(error_entry)
* .Lgs_change's error handler with kernel gsbase.
*/
SWAPGS
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY
SWITCH_TO_KERNEL_CR3 scratch_reg=%rax
jmp .Lerror_entry_done
@@ -1317,6 +1330,7 @@ ENTRY(error_entry)
* gsbase and CR3. Switch to kernel gsbase and CR3:
*/
SWAPGS
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY
SWITCH_TO_KERNEL_CR3 scratch_reg=%rax
/*
@@ -1408,6 +1422,7 @@ ENTRY(nmi)
swapgs
cld
+ FENCE_SWAPGS_USER_ENTRY
SWITCH_TO_KERNEL_CR3 scratch_reg=%rdx
movq %rsp, %rdx
movq PER_CPU_VAR(cpu_current_top_of_stack), %rsp
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h
index aced6c9290d6..3e2f173b554c 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h
@@ -22,8 +22,8 @@ enum cpuid_leafs
CPUID_LNX_3,
CPUID_7_0_EBX,
CPUID_D_1_EAX,
- CPUID_F_0_EDX,
- CPUID_F_1_EDX,
+ CPUID_LNX_4,
+ CPUID_DUMMY,
CPUID_8000_0008_EBX,
CPUID_6_EAX,
CPUID_8000_000A_EDX,
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
index e857771c842d..b1c3de83934e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
@@ -269,13 +269,18 @@
#define X86_FEATURE_XGETBV1 (10*32+ 2) /* XGETBV with ECX = 1 instruction */
#define X86_FEATURE_XSAVES (10*32+ 3) /* XSAVES/XRSTORS instructions */
-/* Intel-defined CPU QoS Sub-leaf, CPUID level 0x0000000F:0 (EDX), word 11 */
-#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC (11*32+ 1) /* LLC QoS if 1 */
-
-/* Intel-defined CPU QoS Sub-leaf, CPUID level 0x0000000F:1 (EDX), word 12 */
-#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_OCCUP_LLC (12*32+ 0) /* LLC occupancy monitoring */
-#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_TOTAL (12*32+ 1) /* LLC Total MBM monitoring */
-#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_LOCAL (12*32+ 2) /* LLC Local MBM monitoring */
+/*
+ * Extended auxiliary flags: Linux defined - for features scattered in various
+ * CPUID levels like 0xf, etc.
+ *
+ * Reuse free bits when adding new feature flags!
+ */
+#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC (11*32+ 0) /* LLC QoS if 1 */
+#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_OCCUP_LLC (11*32+ 1) /* LLC occupancy monitoring */
+#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_TOTAL (11*32+ 2) /* LLC Total MBM monitoring */
+#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_LOCAL (11*32+ 3) /* LLC Local MBM monitoring */
+#define X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_USER (11*32+ 4) /* "" LFENCE in user entry SWAPGS path */
+#define X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL (11*32+ 5) /* "" LFENCE in kernel entry SWAPGS path */
/* AMD-defined CPU features, CPUID level 0x80000008 (EBX), word 13 */
#define X86_FEATURE_CLZERO (13*32+ 0) /* CLZERO instruction */
@@ -381,5 +386,6 @@
#define X86_BUG_L1TF X86_BUG(18) /* CPU is affected by L1 Terminal Fault */
#define X86_BUG_MDS X86_BUG(19) /* CPU is affected by Microarchitectural data sampling */
#define X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY X86_BUG(20) /* CPU is only affected by the MSDBS variant of BUG_MDS */
+#define X86_BUG_SWAPGS X86_BUG(21) /* CPU is affected by speculation through SWAPGS */
#endif /* _ASM_X86_CPUFEATURES_H */
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
index 1bafe0b90cd3..b58d4062a034 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
#include <asm/hypervisor.h>
#include <asm/e820/api.h>
+static void __init spectre_v1_select_mitigation(void);
static void __init spectre_v2_select_mitigation(void);
static void __init ssb_select_mitigation(void);
static void __init l1tf_select_mitigation(void);
@@ -96,17 +97,11 @@ void __init check_bugs(void)
if (boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_STIBP))
x86_spec_ctrl_mask |= SPEC_CTRL_STIBP;
- /* Select the proper spectre mitigation before patching alternatives */
+ /* Select the proper CPU mitigations before patching alternatives: */
+ spectre_v1_select_mitigation();
spectre_v2_select_mitigation();
-
- /*
- * Select proper mitigation for any exposure to the Speculative Store
- * Bypass vulnerability.
- */
ssb_select_mitigation();
-
l1tf_select_mitigation();
-
mds_select_mitigation();
arch_smt_update();
@@ -272,6 +267,98 @@ static int __init mds_cmdline(char *str)
early_param("mds", mds_cmdline);
#undef pr_fmt
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) "Spectre V1 : " fmt
+
+enum spectre_v1_mitigation {
+ SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_NONE,
+ SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_AUTO,
+};
+
+static enum spectre_v1_mitigation spectre_v1_mitigation __ro_after_init =
+ SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_AUTO;
+
+static const char * const spectre_v1_strings[] = {
+ [SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_NONE] = "Vulnerable: __user pointer sanitization and usercopy barriers only; no swapgs barriers",
+ [SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_AUTO] = "Mitigation: usercopy/swapgs barriers and __user pointer sanitization",
+};
+
+/*
+ * Does SMAP provide full mitigation against speculative kernel access to
+ * userspace?
+ */
+static bool smap_works_speculatively(void)
+{
+ if (!boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_SMAP))
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * On CPUs which are vulnerable to Meltdown, SMAP does not
+ * prevent speculative access to user data in the L1 cache.
+ * Consider SMAP to be non-functional as a mitigation on these
+ * CPUs.
+ */
+ if (boot_cpu_has(X86_BUG_CPU_MELTDOWN))
+ return false;
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+static void __init spectre_v1_select_mitigation(void)
+{
+ if (!boot_cpu_has_bug(X86_BUG_SPECTRE_V1) || cpu_mitigations_off()) {
+ spectre_v1_mitigation = SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_NONE;
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (spectre_v1_mitigation == SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_AUTO) {
+ /*
+ * With Spectre v1, a user can speculatively control either
+ * path of a conditional swapgs with a user-controlled GS
+ * value. The mitigation is to add lfences to both code paths.
+ *
+ * If FSGSBASE is enabled, the user can put a kernel address in
+ * GS, in which case SMAP provides no protection.
+ *
+ * [ NOTE: Don't check for X86_FEATURE_FSGSBASE until the
+ * FSGSBASE enablement patches have been merged. ]
+ *
+ * If FSGSBASE is disabled, the user can only put a user space
+ * address in GS. That makes an attack harder, but still
+ * possible if there's no SMAP protection.
+ */
+ if (!smap_works_speculatively()) {
+ /*
+ * Mitigation can be provided from SWAPGS itself or
+ * PTI as the CR3 write in the Meltdown mitigation
+ * is serializing.
+ *
+ * If neither is there, mitigate with an LFENCE to
+ * stop speculation through swapgs.
+ */
+ if (boot_cpu_has_bug(X86_BUG_SWAPGS) &&
+ !boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_PTI))
+ setup_force_cpu_cap(X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_USER);
+
+ /*
+ * Enable lfences in the kernel entry (non-swapgs)
+ * paths, to prevent user entry from speculatively
+ * skipping swapgs.
+ */
+ setup_force_cpu_cap(X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL);
+ }
+ }
+
+ pr_info("%s\n", spectre_v1_strings[spectre_v1_mitigation]);
+}
+
+static int __init nospectre_v1_cmdline(char *str)
+{
+ spectre_v1_mitigation = SPECTRE_V1_MITIGATION_NONE;
+ return 0;
+}
+early_param("nospectre_v1", nospectre_v1_cmdline);
+
+#undef pr_fmt
#define pr_fmt(fmt) "Spectre V2 : " fmt
static enum spectre_v2_mitigation spectre_v2_enabled __ro_after_init =
@@ -1248,7 +1335,7 @@ static ssize_t cpu_show_common(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr
break;
case X86_BUG_SPECTRE_V1:
- return sprintf(buf, "Mitigation: __user pointer sanitization\n");
+ return sprintf(buf, "%s\n", spectre_v1_strings[spectre_v1_mitigation]);
case X86_BUG_SPECTRE_V2:
return sprintf(buf, "%s%s%s%s%s%s\n", spectre_v2_strings[spectre_v2_enabled],
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c
index bdb674da863a..2003bb38b6de 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c
@@ -808,6 +808,30 @@ static void init_speculation_control(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
}
}
+static void init_cqm(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
+{
+ if (!cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC)) {
+ c->x86_cache_max_rmid = -1;
+ c->x86_cache_occ_scale = -1;
+ return;
+ }
+
+ /* will be overridden if occupancy monitoring exists */
+ c->x86_cache_max_rmid = cpuid_ebx(0xf);
+
+ if (cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_OCCUP_LLC) ||
+ cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_TOTAL) ||
+ cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_LOCAL)) {
+ u32 eax, ebx, ecx, edx;
+
+ /* QoS sub-leaf, EAX=0Fh, ECX=1 */
+ cpuid_count(0xf, 1, &eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
+
+ c->x86_cache_max_rmid = ecx;
+ c->x86_cache_occ_scale = ebx;
+ }
+}
+
void get_cpu_cap(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
u32 eax, ebx, ecx, edx;
@@ -839,33 +863,6 @@ void get_cpu_cap(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
c->x86_capability[CPUID_D_1_EAX] = eax;
}
- /* Additional Intel-defined flags: level 0x0000000F */
- if (c->cpuid_level >= 0x0000000F) {
-
- /* QoS sub-leaf, EAX=0Fh, ECX=0 */
- cpuid_count(0x0000000F, 0, &eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
- c->x86_capability[CPUID_F_0_EDX] = edx;
-
- if (cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC)) {
- /* will be overridden if occupancy monitoring exists */
- c->x86_cache_max_rmid = ebx;
-
- /* QoS sub-leaf, EAX=0Fh, ECX=1 */
- cpuid_count(0x0000000F, 1, &eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
- c->x86_capability[CPUID_F_1_EDX] = edx;
-
- if ((cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_OCCUP_LLC)) ||
- ((cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_TOTAL)) ||
- (cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_LOCAL)))) {
- c->x86_cache_max_rmid = ecx;
- c->x86_cache_occ_scale = ebx;
- }
- } else {
- c->x86_cache_max_rmid = -1;
- c->x86_cache_occ_scale = -1;
- }
- }
-
/* AMD-defined flags: level 0x80000001 */
eax = cpuid_eax(0x80000000);
c->extended_cpuid_level = eax;
@@ -896,6 +893,7 @@ void get_cpu_cap(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
init_scattered_cpuid_features(c);
init_speculation_control(c);
+ init_cqm(c);
/*
* Clear/Set all flags overridden by options, after probe.
@@ -954,6 +952,7 @@ static void identify_cpu_without_cpuid(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
#define NO_L1TF BIT(3)
#define NO_MDS BIT(4)
#define MSBDS_ONLY BIT(5)
+#define NO_SWAPGS BIT(6)
#define VULNWL(_vendor, _family, _model, _whitelist) \
{ X86_VENDOR_##_vendor, _family, _model, X86_FEATURE_ANY, _whitelist }
@@ -977,29 +976,37 @@ static const __initconst struct x86_cpu_id cpu_vuln_whitelist[] = {
VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_BONNELL, NO_SPECULATION),
VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_BONNELL_MID, NO_SPECULATION),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT_X, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT_MID, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_AIRMONT, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
- VULNWL_INTEL(XEON_PHI_KNL, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
- VULNWL_INTEL(XEON_PHI_KNM, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT_X, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT_MID, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_AIRMONT, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(XEON_PHI_KNL, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(XEON_PHI_KNM, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY | NO_SWAPGS),
VULNWL_INTEL(CORE_YONAH, NO_SSB),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_AIRMONT_MID, NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_AIRMONT_MID, NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY | NO_SWAPGS),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT_X, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF),
- VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT_PLUS, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT_X, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT_PLUS, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF | NO_SWAPGS),
+
+ /*
+ * Technically, swapgs isn't serializing on AMD (despite it previously
+ * being documented as such in the APM). But according to AMD, %gs is
+ * updated non-speculatively, and the issuing of %gs-relative memory
+ * operands will be blocked until the %gs update completes, which is
+ * good enough for our purposes.
+ */
/* AMD Family 0xf - 0x12 */
- VULNWL_AMD(0x0f, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
- VULNWL_AMD(0x10, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
- VULNWL_AMD(0x11, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
- VULNWL_AMD(0x12, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x0f, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x10, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x11, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS | NO_SWAPGS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x12, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS | NO_SWAPGS),
/* FAMILY_ANY must be last, otherwise 0x0f - 0x12 matches won't work */
- VULNWL_AMD(X86_FAMILY_ANY, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(X86_FAMILY_ANY, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS | NO_SWAPGS),
{}
};
@@ -1036,6 +1043,9 @@ static void __init cpu_set_bug_bits(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY);
}
+ if (!cpu_matches(NO_SWAPGS))
+ setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_SWAPGS);
+
if (cpu_matches(NO_MELTDOWN))
return;
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpuid-deps.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpuid-deps.c
index 2c0bd38a44ab..fa07a224e7b9 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpuid-deps.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpuid-deps.c
@@ -59,6 +59,9 @@ static const struct cpuid_dep cpuid_deps[] = {
{ X86_FEATURE_AVX512_4VNNIW, X86_FEATURE_AVX512F },
{ X86_FEATURE_AVX512_4FMAPS, X86_FEATURE_AVX512F },
{ X86_FEATURE_AVX512_VPOPCNTDQ, X86_FEATURE_AVX512F },
+ { X86_FEATURE_CQM_OCCUP_LLC, X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC },
+ { X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_TOTAL, X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC },
+ { X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_LOCAL, X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC },
{}
};
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/scattered.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/scattered.c
index 772c219b6889..5a52672e3f8b 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/scattered.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/scattered.c
@@ -21,6 +21,10 @@ struct cpuid_bit {
static const struct cpuid_bit cpuid_bits[] = {
{ X86_FEATURE_APERFMPERF, CPUID_ECX, 0, 0x00000006, 0 },
{ X86_FEATURE_EPB, CPUID_ECX, 3, 0x00000006, 0 },
+ { X86_FEATURE_CQM_LLC, CPUID_EDX, 1, 0x0000000f, 0 },
+ { X86_FEATURE_CQM_OCCUP_LLC, CPUID_EDX, 0, 0x0000000f, 1 },
+ { X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_TOTAL, CPUID_EDX, 1, 0x0000000f, 1 },
+ { X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_LOCAL, CPUID_EDX, 2, 0x0000000f, 1 },
{ X86_FEATURE_CAT_L3, CPUID_EBX, 1, 0x00000010, 0 },
{ X86_FEATURE_CAT_L2, CPUID_EBX, 2, 0x00000010, 0 },
{ X86_FEATURE_CDP_L3, CPUID_ECX, 2, 0x00000010, 1 },
diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.h b/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.h
index 9a327d5b6d1f..d78a61408243 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.h
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.h
@@ -47,8 +47,6 @@ static const struct cpuid_reg reverse_cpuid[] = {
[CPUID_8000_0001_ECX] = {0x80000001, 0, CPUID_ECX},
[CPUID_7_0_EBX] = { 7, 0, CPUID_EBX},
[CPUID_D_1_EAX] = { 0xd, 1, CPUID_EAX},
- [CPUID_F_0_EDX] = { 0xf, 0, CPUID_EDX},
- [CPUID_F_1_EDX] = { 0xf, 1, CPUID_EDX},
[CPUID_8000_0008_EBX] = {0x80000008, 0, CPUID_EBX},
[CPUID_6_EAX] = { 6, 0, CPUID_EAX},
[CPUID_8000_000A_EDX] = {0x8000000a, 0, CPUID_EDX},
diff --git a/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h b/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
index 64aaa3f5f36c..1fb6caa4e442 100644
--- a/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
+++ b/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
@@ -275,6 +275,8 @@
#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_OCCUP_LLC (12*32+ 0) /* LLC occupancy monitoring */
#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_TOTAL (12*32+ 1) /* LLC Total MBM monitoring */
#define X86_FEATURE_CQM_MBM_LOCAL (12*32+ 2) /* LLC Local MBM monitoring */
+#define X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_USER (11*32+ 4) /* "" LFENCE in user entry SWAPGS path */
+#define X86_FEATURE_FENCE_SWAPGS_KERNEL (11*32+ 5) /* "" LFENCE in kernel entry SWAPGS path */
/* AMD-defined CPU features, CPUID level 0x80000008 (EBX), word 13 */
#define X86_FEATURE_CLZERO (13*32+ 0) /* CLZERO instruction */
@@ -339,6 +341,7 @@
/* Intel-defined CPU features, CPUID level 0x00000007:0 (EDX), word 18 */
#define X86_FEATURE_AVX512_4VNNIW (18*32+ 2) /* AVX-512 Neural Network Instructions */
#define X86_FEATURE_AVX512_4FMAPS (18*32+ 3) /* AVX-512 Multiply Accumulation Single precision */
+#define X86_FEATURE_MD_CLEAR (18*32+10) /* VERW clears CPU buffers */
#define X86_FEATURE_PCONFIG (18*32+18) /* Intel PCONFIG */
#define X86_FEATURE_SPEC_CTRL (18*32+26) /* "" Speculation Control (IBRS + IBPB) */
#define X86_FEATURE_INTEL_STIBP (18*32+27) /* "" Single Thread Indirect Branch Predictors */
@@ -376,5 +379,8 @@
#define X86_BUG_SPECTRE_V2 X86_BUG(16) /* CPU is affected by Spectre variant 2 attack with indirect branches */
#define X86_BUG_SPEC_STORE_BYPASS X86_BUG(17) /* CPU is affected by speculative store bypass attack */
#define X86_BUG_L1TF X86_BUG(18) /* CPU is affected by L1 Terminal Fault */
+#define X86_BUG_MDS X86_BUG(19) /* CPU is affected by Microarchitectural data sampling */
+#define X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY X86_BUG(20) /* CPU is only affected by the MSDBS variant of BUG_MDS */
+#define X86_BUG_SWAPGS X86_BUG(21) /* CPU is affected by speculation through SWAPGS */
#endif /* _ASM_X86_CPUFEATURES_H */